The radiation regime and architecture of plant stands

The radiation regime and architecture of plant stands

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The solar radiant energy is in fact the only source of energy for the basic physical processes taking place in the atmosphere and on the earth's surface. When passing through the atmosphere and being reflected by the ground surface, solar radiation undergoes changes and conversions. Some of it is absorbed in the atmosphere and converted into other forms of energy, mainly into heat, and some is scattered by gases, by dust and by water vapour. Because of absorption and scattering in the atmosphere, solar radiation is changed by the time it reaches the earth's surface. That part of it which arrives as a beam of parallel rays is referred to as direct solar radiation, and that which is scattered in the atmosphere and reaches the earth's surface from all directions of the sky is called diffuse solar radiation. Both of them are reflected back into the atmosphere when they reach the earth's surface, and this third type of radiation is defined as reflected radiation. All of these radiations differ from solar radiation arriving at the upper level of the atmosphere in intensity as well as in spectral composition although they all fall within the spectral region of solar radiation. In atmospheric physics these types of radiation are known as short-wave radiation (SWR) as distinguished from long-wave or irifrared radiation (L WR) emitted by the atmosphere and the earth's surface.
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Product details

  • Hardback | 391 pages
  • 156 x 244 x 31.5mm | 835g
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers
  • Dordrecht, Netherlands
  • English
  • XXVII, 391 p.
  • 9061936071
  • 9789061936077

Table of contents

one: Plant stand architecture.- 1.1 Role of Phytometric Investigations in The Studies of Plant Stand Architecture and Radiation Regime.- 1.2 Principal Phytometric Characteristics of Stands.- 1.2.1 Phytometric characteristics of leaf and other plant organs.- 1.2.2 Phytometric characteristics of an individual plant.- 1.2.3 Phytometric characteristics of a pure stand.- 1.2.4 Plant stand as a horizontal layer.- 1.3 Phytometrical Methods.- 1.3.1 Determination of leaf area.- 1.3.2 The measurement of leaf orientation.- 1.3.3 Inclined point quadrats method.- 1.3.4 Stratifying clip method.- 1.3.5 The methods of statistical measurements.- 1.3.6 Numerical methods for determination of foliage area vertical distribution.- 1.3.7 A rational method for determining phytometric characteristics of stand architecture and productivity.- 1.4 Statistical Characteristics of A Stand.- 1.4.1 Parameters of statistical characteristics.- 1.4.2 Correlation between statistical characteristics.- 1.5 Spatial Distribution of Phytoelements in Stands.- 1.5.1 General.- 1.5.2 Space-time variability of transition functions.- 1.5.3 Vertical distribution of phytomass and phytoarea.- 1.5.4 Horizontal distribution of phytomass and phytoarea.- 1.6 Foliage Area Orientation in Stands.- 1.6.1 General.- 1.6.2 Distribution functions of leaf inclination and azimuth orientation.- 1.6.3 G-function of leaf orientation.- 1.7 Plant Stand Architecture, Photosynthesis and Productivity.- two: Radiation regime in plant stand.- II.1 Radiation Field in a Plant Stand and The Problem of Its Mathematical Modelling.- II.1.1 General.- II. 1.2 Basic characteristics of the radiation field.- II. 1.3 Optical characteristics of phytoelements.- II. 1.4 Optical characteristics of plate medium.- II. 1.5 The radiation transfer equation for an optically anisotropic plate medium.- IL 1.6 Plant stand as a plate medium.- IL 1.7 The radiation transfer equation for a plant stand.- II. 1.8 Leaf and plant stand absorption functions.- II. 1.9 Statistical character of the radiation field in plant stands.- 11.2 Incident Radiation.- II.2.1 General.- IL2.2 Incoming direct solar radiation.- 11.2.3 Incoming diffuse sky radiation.- 11.2.4 Incoming total solar radiation.- 11.2.5 Incoming long-wave radiation of the atmosphere.- 11.2.6 Photosynthetically active radiation.- 11.3 Optical Properties of Phytoelements.- 11.3.1 General.- 11.3.2 Optical models of the leaf.- 11.3.3 Scattering phase function of the leaf.- 11.3.4 Spectral optical properties of phytoelements.- 11.3.5 Integral coefficients of leaf reflection, transmission and absorption for short-wave radiation and PAR.- 11.3.6 Optical properties of phytoelements in the long-wave spectral region.- 11.4 Penetration of Direct Solar Radiation into a Plant Stand.- 11.4.1 General.- 11.4.2 Statistical character of penetration of direct radiation in a plant stand. Penumbras.- 11.4.3 Theoretical expressions for direct solar radiation penetration.- 11.4.4 Penetration theory for direct solar radiation in horizontally inhomogeneous plant stands.- 11.4.5 Calculated penetration of direct solar radiation and its dependence on various factors.- 11.4.6 Methods of experimental investigation.- 11.4.7 Experimental data on penetration.- 11.5 Penetration of Diffuse Sky Radiation Into Plant Stand.- 11.5.1 General.- 11.5.2 Penetration formulae.- 11.5.3 Calculation of intensities and zonal radiation.- 11.5.4 Calculation of downward fluxes.- 11.5.5 Method of hemispherical photographs.- 11.5.6 Statistical character of the penetration of diffuse sky radiation.- 11.6 Scattering of Radiation Inside Plant Stands.- 11.6.1 General.- 11.6.2 Scattering and absorption coefficients for an elementary volume in a plant stand. Scattering phase function.- 11.6.3 Solution of radiation transfer equation for horizontal leaves.- 11.6.4 The Schwarzschild approximation for modified radiative transfer equation.- 11.6.5 Approximation for single scattering.- 11.6.6 Leaf scattering coefficient ?L and the complementary radiation field.- 11.6.7 Calculation of the complementary PAR field.- 11.6.8 Calculation of the complementary NIR field.- 11.7 Total Radiation Field in Plant Stands.- 11.7.1 General.- 11.7.2 Intensities of total radiation field.- 11.7.3 Total vertical fluxes.- 11.7.4 Angular distribution of total radiation flux.- 11.7.5 Leaf absorption in total radiation field.- 11.7.6 Radiation in a plant stand with horizontal leaves.- 11.7.7 Errors of the approximate methods of calculation.- 11.7.8 New theories.- 11.7.9 Monte Carlo simulation models.- 11.8 Semiempirical Formulae for Total Radiation Fluxes.- 11.8.1 General.- 11.8.2 Exponential and binomial semiempirical formulae.- 11.8.3 New semiempirical formulae.- 11.9 Albedo of Plant Stand.- 11.9.1 General.- 11.9.2 Formulae for the albedo and brightness coefficient.- 11.9.3 Albedo and its dependence on various factors.- 11.9.4 Comparison of calculated and experimental data.- 11.10 Calculation of Long-Wave Radiation in A Stand.- 11.11 Net Radtation in Plant Stands.- Conclusion.- Supplement. Description of Field Experiments.- References.- Author Index.
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