Life of Napoleon Bonaparte : Volume 5
Sir Walter Scott first published his biography on Napoleon in 1827. The work represents an important contribution to the study of France during the Napoleonic Era. The book provides an honest and thorough account of the man and the society in which he lived.
- Hardback | 455 pages
- 180 x 260mm | 954g
- 16 Mar 2020
- Nova Science Publishers Inc
- New York, United States
Table of contents
Preface. Review of the state of Europe after the Peace of VersaillesEnglandFranceSpainPrussiaImprudent Innovations of the Emperor JosephDisturbances in his DominionsRussiaFranceHer ancient System of Monarchyhow organisedCauses of its DecayDecay of the Nobility as a bodyThe new NoblesThe Country NoblesThe Nobles of the highest OrderThe ChurchThe higher Orders of the ClergyThe lower OrdersThe CommonsTheir increase in Power and ImportanceTheir Claims opposed to those of the Privileged Classes. State of France continuedState of Public OpinionMen of Letters encouraged by the GreatDisadvantages attending this PatronageLicentious tendency of the French LiteratureTheir Irreligious and Infidel OpinionsFree Opinions on Politics permitted to be expressed in an abstract and speculative, but not in a practical FormDisadvantages arising from the Suppression of Free DiscussionAnglomaniaShare of France in the American WarDisposition of the Troops who returned from America. Proximate Cause of the RevolutionDeranged State of the FinancesReforms in the Royal HouseholdSystem of Turgot and NeckerNecker's Exposition of the State of the Public RevenueThe Red-BookNecker displacedSucceeded by CalonneGeneral State of the RevenueAssembly of the NotablesCalonne dismissedArchbishop of Sens Administrator of the FinancesThe King's Contest with the ParliamentBed of JusticeResistance of the Parliament and general Disorder in the KingdomVacillating Policy of the MinisterRoyal SittingScheme of forming a Cour PleniereIt proves ineffectualArchbishop of Sens retires, and is succeeded by NeckerHe resolves to convoke the States-GeneralSecond Assembly of Notables previous to Convocation of the StatesQuestions as to the Numbers of which the Tiers Etat should consist, and the Mode in which the Estates should deliberate. Meeting of the States-GeneralPredominant Influence of the Tiers EtatProperty not represented sufficiently in that BodyGeneral character of the MembersDisposition of the Estate of the NoblesAnd of the ClergyPlan of forming the Three Estates into two HousesIts advantagesIt failsThe Clergy unite with the Tiers Etat, which assumes the title of the National AssemblyThey assume the task of Legislation, and declare all former Fiscal Regulations illegalThey assert their determination to continue their SessionsRoyal SittingTerminates in the Triumph of the AssemblyParties in that BodyMounierConstitutionalistsRepublicansJacobinsOrleans. Plan of the Democrats to bring the King and Assembly to ParisBanquet of the Garde du CorpsRiot at ParisA formidable Mob of Women assemble to march to VersaillesThe National Guard refuse to act against the Insurgents, and demand also to be led to VersaillesThe Female Mob arriveTheir behaviour to the AssemblyTo the KingAlarming Disorders at NightLa Fayette arrives with the National GuardMob force the PalaceMurder the Body GuardsThe Queen's safety endangeredFayette's arrival with his Force restores OrderRoyal Family obliged to go to reside at ParisThe ProcessionThis Step agreeable to the Views of the Constitutionalists, Republicans, and AnarchistsDuke of Orleans sent to England. La Fayette resolves to enforce orderA Baker is murdered by the RabbleOne of his Murderers executedDecree imposing Martial LawIntroduction of the Doctrines of EqualityThey are in their exaggerated sense inconsistent with Human Nature and the progress of SocietyThe Assembly abolish titles of Nobility, Armorial bearings, and phrases of CourtesyReasoning on these InnovationsDisorder of FinanceNecker becomes unpopularSeizure of Church landsIssue of AssignatsNecker leaves France in unpopularityNew Religious InstitutionOath imposed on the ClergyResisted by the greater part of the OrderGeneral View of the operations of the Constituent AssemblyEnthusiasm of the People for their new PrivilegesLimited Privileges of the CrownKing is obliged to dissembleHis Negotiations with MirabeauWith BouilleAttack on the PalacePrevented by FayetteRoyalists expelled from the TuileriesEscape of LouisHe is captured at VarennesBrought back to ParisRiot in the Champ de MarsLouis accepts the Constitution. Legislative AssemblyIts CompositionConstitutionalistsGirondists or BrissotinsJacobinsViews and Sentiments of Foreign NationsEnglandViews of the Tories and WhigsAnacharsis ClootzAustriaPrussiaRussiaSwedenEmigration of the French Princes and ClergyIncreasing Unpopularity of Louis from this CauseDeath of the Emperor Leopold, and its EffectsFrance declares WarViews and Interests of the different Parties in France at this PeriodDecree against MonsieurLouis interposes his VetoDecree against the Priests who should refuse the Constitutional OathLouis again interposes his VetoConsequences of these RefusalsFall of De LessartMinisters now chosen from the BrissotinsAll Parties favourable to War. Defeats of the French on the FrontierDecay of ConstitutionalistsThey form the Club of Feuillans, and are dispersed by the JacobinsThe MinistryDumouriezBreach of confidence betwixt the King and his MinistersDissolution of the King's Constitutional GuardExtravagant measures of the JacobinsAlarms of the GirondistsDepartmental Army proposedKing puts his Veto on the decree, against Dumouriez's representationsDecree against the recusant PriestsKing refuses itLetter of the Ministers to the KingHe dismisses Roland, Claviere, and ServanDumouriez, Duranton, and Lacoste, appointed in their steadKing ratifies the decree concerning the Departmental ArmyDumouriez resigns, and departs for the FrontiersNew Ministers named from the ConstitutionalistsInsurrection of 20th JuneArmed Mob intrude into the AssemblyThence into the TuileriesLa Fayette repairs to ParisRemonstrates in favour of the KingBut is compelled to return to the FrontiersMarseillois appear in ParisDuke of Brunswick's manifesto. The Day of the Tenth of AugustTocsin sounded early in the MorningSwiss Guards, and relics of the Royal Party, repair to the TuileriesMandat assassinatedDejection of Louis, and energy of the QueenKing's Ministers appear at the Bar of the Assembly, stating the peril of the Royal Family, and requesting a Deputation might be sent to the PalaceAssembly pass to the Order of the DayLouis and his Family repair to the AssemblyConflict at the TuileriesSwiss ordered to repair to the King's Personand are many of them shot and dispersed on their way to the AssemblyAt the close of the Day almost all of them are massacredRoyal Family spend the Night in the Convent of the Feuillans. La Fayette compelled to Escape from FranceIs made Prisoner by the Prussians, with three CompanionsReflectionsThe Triumvirate, Danton, Robespierre, and MaratRevolutionary Tribunal appointedStupor of the Legislative AssemblyLongwy, Stenay, and Verdun, taken by the PrussiansMob of Paris enragedGreat Massacre of Prisoners in Paris, commencing on the 2d, and ending 6th SeptemberApathy of the Assembly during and after these EventsReview of its Causes. Election of Representatives for the National ConventionJacobins are very activeRight hand PartyLeft hand sideNeutral MembersThe Girondists are in possession of the ostensible PowerThey denounce the Jacobin Chiefs, but in an irregular and feeble mannerMarat, Robespierre, and Danton, supported by the Commune and Populace of ParisFrance declared a RepublicDuke of Brunswick's CampaignNeglects the French EmigrantsIs tardy in his OperationsOccupies the poorest part of ChampagneHis Army becomes sicklyProspects of a BattleDumouriez's Army recruited with CarmagnolesThe Duke resolves to RetreatThoughts on the consequences of that measureThe retreat disastrousThe Emigrants disbanded in a great measureReflections on their FateThe Prince of Conde's Army. Jacobins determine upon the Execution of LouisProgress and Reasons of the King's UnpopularityGirondists taken by surprise, by a proposal for the Abolition of Royalty made by the JacobinsProposal carriedThoughts on the New System of GovernmentCompared with that of Rome, Greece, America, and other Republican StatesEnthusiasm throughout France at the ChangeFollies it gave birth toAnd CrimesMonuments of Art destroyedMadame Roland interposes to save the Life of the KingBarrereGirondists move for a Departmental LegionCarriedRevokedand Girondists defeatedThe Authority of the Community of Paris paramount even over the ConventionDocuments of the Iron-ChestParallel betwixt Charles I. and Louis XVI.Motion by Petion, that the King should be Tried before the Convention. The Trial of LouisIndecision of the Girondists, and its EffectsThe Royal Family insulted by the Agents of the CommunityThe King deprived of his Son's societyThe King brought to Trial before the ConventionHis First ExaminationCarried back to Prison amidst Insult and AbuseTumult in the AssemblyThe King deprived of Intercourse with his FamilyMalesherbes appointed as Counsel to defend the Kingand De SezeLouis again brought before the ConventionOpening Speech of De SezeKing remanded to the TempleStormy DebateEloquent attack of Vergniaud on the JacobinsSentence of Death pronounced against the KingGeneral Sympathy for his FateDumouriez arrives in ParisVainly tries to avert the King's FateLouis XVI. beheaded on 21st January, 1793Marie Antoinette on the 16th October thereafterThe Princess Elizabeth in May 1794The Dauphin perishes, by cruelty, June 8th, 1795The Princess Royal exchanged for La Fayette, 19th December, 1795. DumouriezHis displeasure at the Treatment of the Flemish Provinces by the ConventionHis projects in consequenceGains the ill-will of his Armyand is forced to fly to the Austrian CampLives many years in retreat, and finally dies in EnglandStruggles betwixt the Girondists and JacobinsRobespierre impeaches the Leaders of the Girondists, and is denounced by themDecree of Accusation against MaratCommission of TwelveMarat acquittedTerror of the GirondistsJacobins prepare to attack the Palais Royal, but are repulsedRepair to the Convention, who recall the Commission of TwelveLouvet and other Girondist Leaders Fly from ParisConvention go forth in procession to expostulate with the PeopleForced back to their Hall, and compelled to Decree the Accusation of Thirty of their BodyGirondists finally ruinedand their principal Leaders perishClose of their History. Views of Parties in Britain relative to the RevolutionAffiliated SocietiesCounterpoised by Aristocratic AssociationsAristocratic Party eager for War with FranceThe French proclaim the Navigation of the ScheldtBritish Ambassador recalled from Paris, and French Envoy no longer accredited in LondonFrance declares War against EnglandBritish Army sent to Holland, under the Duke of YorkState of the ArmyView of the Military Positions of Francein Flanderson the Rhinein PiedmontSavoyon the PyreneesState of the War in La VendeeDescription of the CountryLe BocageLe LourouxClose Union betwixt the Nobles and PeasantryBoth strongly attached to Royalty, and abhorrent of the RevolutionThe PriestsThe Religion of the Vendeans outraged by the ConventionA general Insurrection takes place in 1793Military Organisation and Habits of the VendeansDivision in the British Cabinet on the Mode of conducting the WarPittWyndhamReasoning upon the subjectVendeans defeatedThey defeat, in their turn, the French Troops at LavalBut are ultimately destroyed and dispersedUnfortunate Expedition to QuiberonLa Charette defeated and executed, and the War of La Vendee finally terminatedUnsuccessful Resistance of Bourdeaux, Marseilles, and Lyons, to the ConventionSiege of LyonsIts Surrender and dreadful PunishmentSiege of Toulon. Views of the British Cabinet regarding the French RevolutionExtraordinary Situation of FranceExplanation of the Anomaly which it exhibitedSystem of TerrorCommittee of Public SafetyOf Public SecurityDavid the PainterLaw against Suspected PersonsRevolutionary TribunalEffects of the Emigration of the Princes and NoblesCauses of the Passiveness of the French People under the Tyranny of the JacobinsSingular Address of the Committee of Public SafetyGeneral Reflections. Marat, Danton, RobespierreMarat poniardedDanton and Robespierre become RivalsCommune of Paristheir gross IrreligionGobelGoddess of ReasonMarriage reduced to a Civil ContractViews of Dantonand of RobespierrePrincipal Leaders of the Commune arrestedand Nineteen of them executedDanton arrested by the influence of Robespierreand, along with Camille Desmoulins, Westermann, and La Croix, taken before the Revolutionary Tribunal, condemned, and executedDecree issued, on the motion of Robespierre, acknowledging a Supreme BeingCecilee RegnaultGradual Change in the Public MindRobespierre becomes unpopularMakes every effort to retrieve his powerStormy Debate in the ConventionCollot D'Herbois, Tallien, &c., expelled from the Jacobin Club at the instigation of RobespierreRobespierre denounced in the Convention on the 9th Thermidor, (27th July, 1794,) and, after furious struggles, arrested, along with his brother, Couthon, and Saint JustHenriot, Commandant of the National Guard, arrestedTerrorists take refuge in the Hotel de VilleAttempt their own livesRobespierre wounds himselfbut lives, along with most of the others, long enough to be carried to the Guillotine, and executedHis characterStruggles that followed his FateFinal Destruction of the Jacobinical Systemand return of TranquillitySingular colour given to Society in ParisBall of the Victims. Retrospective View of the External Relations of FranceHer great Military SuccessesWhence they aroseEffect of the Compulsory LeviesMilitary Genius and Character of the FrenchFrench GeneralsNew Mode of Training the TroopsLight TroopsSuccessive Attacks in ColumnAttachment of the Soldiers to the RevolutionAlso of the GeneralsCarnotEffect of the French principles preached to the Countries invaded by their ArmsClose of the Revolution with the fall of RobespierreReflections upon what was to succeed. Index.