Western Societies: v. 2

Western Societies: v. 2 : A Documentary History

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These volumes present a collection of primary source materials from the earliest times to the present intended for use in college courses in Western Civilization. An outstanding feature of the book is the wide variety of source materials included - readings from literary classics, letters, biographies, chronicles, diaries, philosophic and scientific writings, and government records. Women's history is emphasized throughout.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 552 pages
  • 162.6 x 233.7 x 27.9mm | 816.48g
  • McGraw-Hill Education - Europe
  • McGraw Hill Higher Education
  • London, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 2nd Revised edition
  • 007064845X
  • 9780070648456

Table of contents

Preface I THE SEARCH FOR ORDER--ABSOLUTISM AND ARISTOCRACY SOCIAL CONDITIONS Germany From Simplicissimus France From Letters of the Abbess of Port-Royal THEORIES OF ABSOLUTISM Rationalism From Jean Bodin. Six Books of the Commonwealth From Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan Divine Right From Bossuet. Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture Patriarchy From Robert Filmer. Patriarcha THE COURT OF LOUIS XIV Life at Versailles From Memoirs of the Duke of Saint-Simon Portrait of a Monarch From Memoirs of the Duke of Saint-Simon From Louis XIV. Letter to His Heir ABSOLUTISM IN PRACTICE Religion From Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) From Memoirs of the Duke of Saint-Simon From Declaration of the Gallican Church From Louis XIV. Letter to His Heir Military Organization From Voltaire. The Age of Louis XIV Economy and Local Administration From Colbert's Memoranda From Colbert's Correspondence EASTERN EUROPE The Turkish Menace From The Present State of the German and Turkish Empires Peter the Great From Gilbert Burnett's History From Von Korb's Diary From De Missy's Life of Peter II THE SEARCH FOR ORDER CONSTITUTIONALISM AND OLIGARCHY CROWN AND PARLIAMENT Earlier Views From Fortescue. The Governance of England (1471) From Elizabeth's "Golden Speech" (1601) From James I. Speech to Parliament (1610) From Petition of Grievances (1610) CIVIL WAR Charles I. The Break with Parliament From Petition of Right (1628) Commons Protestation (1629) From Petition Accompanying the Grand Remonstrance (1641) Case of the Five Members Militia Ordinance A Royal Martyr? Declaration of Sovereignty Act Establishing a Court to Try the King Charles's Defense The Sentence Last Words RELIGION AND SOCIAL PROTEST Radical Dissent From The Free-Man's Freedom Vindicated From the Army Debates (1647) From A Fiery Flying Roll From Winstanley. Letter to Lord Fairfax A Digger Song (1649) Women's Roles From Domesticall Duties From Hudibras Women's Petition (1649) From Mary Cary. The New Jerusalem's Glory From George Fox. A Collection of... Epistles From The Sufferings of the People Called Quakers From Dorothy Osborne's Letters OLIVER CROMWELL AND THE INTERREGNUM War and Religion From Cromwell's Letters and Speeches Social Legislation From Acts and Ordinances Authority and Consent Dismissal of the Rump Parliament From Clarendon's History From Ludlow's Memoirs Cromwell's Deathbed Prayer A Royalist View From Clarendon's History FROM RESTORATION TO REVOLUTION Restoration From John Evelyn's Diary The "Glorious Revolution" From John Evelyn's Diary From The Bill of Rights (1689) III COMMERCE AND EMPIRE -- THE WEST AND THE WORLD PATTERNS OF COMMERCE The East Indies From Report of Simon de Pomponne The Atlantic From The London Tradesman (1774) Instructions to Captain Lindsay (1754) From Diary of a Citizen From Letter of Peter Fontaine (1757) NORTH AMERICA-EXPLORATION AND IMMIGRATION Exploration and Missionaries From Voyages of Marquette From Letters of Junipero Serra Immigration From Journey to Pennsylvania From British Customs Report From J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur. What Is an American? THE FAR EAST India -- Wealth and Power From Robert Clive. Speech in Commons (1772) From Edmund Burke. Speech in Commons (1783) China -- Merchants and Missionaries From Memorandum of Huo Ju-hsia From Decree of K'ang-hsi (1692) From Decree of Pope Clement XI (1715) From Decree of K'ang--hsi (1721) THE OLD COLONIAL SYSTEM Economic Regulation from The Hat Act (1732) The System Defended From Sir William Keith. A Short Discourse The System Attacked From Adam Smith. The Wealth of Nations EUROPEAN EMPIRES -- GERMANY AND EASTERN EUROPE Prussia From Report of Count Von Seckendorf From Letters of Frederick II and Frederick William I From Memoirs of Frederick II From Frederick II. Essay on the Forms of Government Russia From Letter of Baron de Breteuil From Catherine II. Proposals for a New Law Code From Decree on Serfs (1767) Poland From Memoirs of Frederick II From Letter of Maria Theresa From Letter of Catherine II IV THE ENLIGHTENMENT -- NATURE, REASON, AND PROGRESS NATURE AND MAN Natural Right From John Locke. Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690) Human Nature From John Locke. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) GOD AND NATURE Theism From Voltaire. Elements of the Philosophy of Newton From Alexander Pope. An Essay on Man Atheism From Baron d'Holbach. Common Sense PROGRESS AND REFORM The Idea of Progress From Edward Gibbon. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire From Marquis de Condorcet. Progress of the Human Mind Reform From The Encyclopedia From The Encyclopedia From Cesare Beccaria. Essay on Crimes and Punishments SKEPTICISM, FANATICISM, AND SATIRE Skepticism From David Hume. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding From Voltaire. Philosophical Dictionary Fanaticism From the Encyclopedia Satire -- Candide and Figaro From Voltaire. Candide, or the Optimist From Beaumarchais. The Marriage of Figaro POLITICAL IDEAS Rights and Liberties From Voltaire. Philosophical Dictionary From Montesquieu. Spirit of the Laws From Declaration of Independence (1776) Enlightened Absolutism From Mercier de la Riviere. The Natural Order (1767) Totalitarian Democracy? From Jean Jacques Rousseau. The Social Contract LOVE AND FRIENDSHIP Julie de Lespinasse From Memoir of Baron de Grimm From Memoir of Marmontel From Letter of Julie de Lespinasse V INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION--AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURE, POLITICAL ECONOMY AGRICULTURE English and French Agriculture Compared From Arthur Young. Travels during the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789 ... in the Kingdom of France Feudal Practices in German Agriculture From William Jacob. A View of the Agriculture ... of Germany ... Agricultural Laborers From David Davies. The Case of Labourers in Husbandry ... (1795) MANUFACTURE Spinning and Weaving From William Radcliffe. Origin of ... the Power Loom (1828) Families Disrupted From Observations ... on the Loss of Woollen Spinning (c.1794) Machinery Attacked The Leeds Woollen Workers' Petition (1786) Machinery Defended Letter from the Cloth Merchants of Leeds (1791) The First Textile Factories From Richard Guest. Compendious History of the Cotton-Manufacture (1823) POLITICAL ECONOMY Supply and Demand From Adam Smith. The Wealth of Nations The Iron Law of Wages From David Ricardo. On Wages Poverty and Population From Thomas Malthus. First Essay on Population (1798) VI THE FRENCH REVOLUTION THE DEBATE OVER NOBLE PRIVILEGE Royal Power Asserted From The Official Transcript of the Session of the Scourging (March 3, 1766) Noble Privilege Defended From Remonstrance of the Parlement of Bordeaux (1771) Noble Privilege Challenged From Abbe Sieyes. What Is the Third Estate? THE THIRD ESTATE TRIUMPHANT The Fall of the Bastille From A Parisian Newspaper Account, July 14, 1789 Feudal Rights Abolished The August 4th Decrees (August 4-11, 1789) The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (August 27, 1789) From The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July 12, 1790) Exporting the Revolution The Propagandist Decrees (1792) CHALLENGES TO LIBERAL REVOLUTIONARIES Defending Church and King From Edmund Burke. Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) The Vendee Uprising From Charles Tilly. The Vendee Are Women Citizens? From Olympe de Gouges Declaration of the Rights Woman and the Female Citizen (1791) From Debates in the National Convention of Clubs and Popular Societies for Women (1793) Revolutionary Morality What Is a Sans-Culotte? From Maximilien Robespierre. On The Principles of Political Morality (February 1794) From "Gracchus" Babeuf. Manifesto of the Equals NAPOLEONIC CONSOLIDATION Centralized Administration An Instruction for Senators (April 1805) To His Brother Jerome, King of Westphalia (Fontainebleau, November 15, 1807) A Conversation with Montholon (St. Helena, 1814) Restoration From The Constitutional Charter of 1814 VII RESPONSES TO REVOLUTION -- THEORY AND POLITICS (1810-1832) CONSERVATISM The Divine Origin of Constitutions From Joseph de Maistre. Essay on the Generative Principle of Political Constitutions (1810) A Call for Monarchal Solidarity From Prince Klemens von Metternich. Political Confession of Faith (1820) ROMANTICISM "Nature ... the Guardian of My Heart" From William Wordsworth. Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey The Inner Spiritual Life From Friedrich von Schlegel. The Philosophy of Life and Philosophy of Language The Romantic Sensibility From Mary Shelley. Frankenstein NATIONALISM Poland From Adam Mickiewicz. The Books of the Polish Nation ... Italy From Giuseppe Mazzini. Young Italy (1832) REFORM Russia From Peter Kakhovsky. Letter to General Levash ev (February 1826) From Pavel Pestel. Extracts from Pestel's Testimony England From Samuel Bamford. Passages in the Life of a Radical -- On the Peterloo Massacre From Thomas Babington Macaulay. Speeches (May 2, 1831) -- On the Reform Bill of 1832 VIII INDUSTRIALIZATION AND SOCIAL UPHEAVAL THE FACTORY SYSTEM Principles From Andrew Ure. The Philosophy of Manufactures Discipline Factory Rules in Berlin (1844) THE INDUSTRIAL CITY "Outrage Done to Nature" From William Wordsworth. The Excursion (1814) From Friedrich Engels. The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844 FAMILY ORGANIZATION The Working-Class Family Economy From Mayhew. Interview with a Female Operative Middle-Class Domesticity From Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management THE CHALLENGE OF LABOR English Chartism The People's Petition of 1838 Address of the Female Political Union ... (1839) French Socialism From Louis Blanc. The Organization of Labor (1840) Class Struggle From Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto (1848) THE TRIUMPH OF THE BOURGEOISIE Middle-Class Values From Samuel Smiles. Self-Help Progress From The Economist (London 1851) THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 France From Alphonse de Lamartine. History of the French Revolution of 1848 Germany From Carl Schurz. Reminiscences IX SCIENCE AND SOCIETY THE EVOLUTION OF SOCIETY Social Evolution From Herbert Spencer. Progress: Its Law and Cause Evolution From Charles Darwin. The Descent of Man A Science of Society From Auguste Comte. A General View of Positivism THE EVOLUTION OF SEXUAL DIFFERENCE The Argument for Equality From John Stuart Mill. The Subjection of Women The Argument for Inequality From Patrick Geddes and J. Arthur Thompson. The Evolution of Sex THE MOTOR OF HISTORY The Pursuit of Happiness and Liberty of Thought From John Stuart Mill. Utilitarianism (1861) From John Stuart Mill. On Liberty (1859) The Crisis in Belief From Edmund Gosse. Father and Son (1907) X STATE BUILDING AND IMPERIALIST EXPANSION VARIETIES OF NATIONALISM Pan-Slavism From Nikolai Danilevsky. Russia and Europe: An Inquiry into the Cultural and Political Relations of the Slav World and of the Germano-Latin World (1869) Political Nationalism From Heinrich von Treitschke. Politics Liberal Nationalism From Ernest Renan. What Is a Nation? THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY Diplomacy From Cavour's Letter to Victor Emmanuel (July 24, 1858) Conquest From Garibaldi's Report on the Conquest of Naples Unification From Victor Emmanuel's Address to Parliament (Rome, 1871) THE HAPSBURG EMPIRE The Dual Monarchy From Memoirs of Count von Beust GERMAN UNIFICATION Iron and Blood From Otto von Bismarck. Speech to the Reichstag (September 30, 1862) War with Austria From William I. Proclamation of the Seven Weeks' War (June 1866) The Franco-Prussian War From Otto von Bismarck. Memoirs Military Preparedness From Otto von Bismarck. Speech to the Reichstag (February 6, 1888) IMPERIALISM French Colonial Policy From Jules Ferry. Preface to Tonkin (1890) The White Man's Burden From Rudyard Kipling. The White Man's Burden The Black Man's Oppression From Edward Morel. The Black Man's Burden The Economic Bases of Imperialism From John A. Hobson. Imperialism XI ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM ORGANIZATION Networks of Factories From Harold Baron. Chemical Industry on the Continent (1909) German Banks From Articles on German Banking Retailing On Parisian Department Stores AN INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SYSTEM AND A WORLD MARKET The Gold Standard From German Coinage Act, July 9, 1873 The World Economy From Robert Giffen. On the Depression of 1873-1876 GOVERNMENTS AND INDUSTRY Protective Tariffs Jules Meline. Argument for Protection in France (1892) Regulation of Working Conditions From Otto von Bismarck. On State Socialism (1884) From Georges Clemenceau. Speech on Strikes, Trade Unions, and Socialism (1906) THE LABOR MOVEMENT Strikes From Ben Turner. About Myself National Federations of Labor From The French General Confederation of Labor, Charter of Amiens (1906) THE SOCIALIST MOVEMENT German Social Democracy From The Erfurt Program (1891) From Anna Maier. Autobiography (1912) English Social Democracy From William Morris. How I Became a Socialist French Socialists Unite From Program of the Unified Socialist Party (1905) XII WORLD WAR I THE ROAD TO WAR National Rivalry From An Interview with the Geman Kaiser (Daily Telegraph, 1908) Popular Propaganda The German "Hasslied" War Declared The "Blank Check" Telegram From Philipp Scheidemann. The Making of New Germany STRATEGIES AND BATTLES The Western Front From Field Marshal Joffre. Personal Memoirs Trench Warfare From Vera Brittain. Testament of Youth New Weaponry From Captain Von Richthofen. The Red Battle Flyer America Enters the War From Speech of Congressman Joe Henry Eagle (April 15, 1917) THE HOME FRONT England Mourns Her Dead Laurence Binyon. For the Fallen (September 1914) Women's War Service From E. Sylvia Pankhurst. The Home Front THE DECLINE OF THE WEST? German Surrender From The Versailles Treaty Disillusionment From John Maynard Keynes. The Economic Consequences of the Peace From Sigmund Freud. Thoughts for the Times on War and Death The Toll of War. Mortality Statistics XIII THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION -- FROM LENIN TO STALIN THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION Lenin's Strategy From V. I. Lenin. What Is to Be Done? The Revolution of 1905 From The Petition of January 9, 1905 From Tsar Nichols I. The October Manifesto (1905) REVOLUTION, WAR COMMUNISM, AND CIVIL WAR Wartime Conditions From Leon Trotsky. The History of the Russian Revolution The Fall of the Tsar First Statement of the Provisional Government, March 1917 The Bolsheviks Come to Power Account of the Overthrow of the Provisional Government (November 8, 1917) The Peace and Land Decrees War Communism Decree on Grain (May 9, 1918) Civil War From Proclamation of the "Whites" (July 8, 1918) ECONOMY AND SOCIETY IN THE 1920S The New Economic Policy From V. I. Lenin. Draft Resolutions on Questions of the New Economic Policy The Family From Alexandra Kollantai. Communism and the Family STALIN AND THE CONSOLIDATION OF THE MODERN SOVIET STATE Economic Planning From Joseph Stalin. The Results of the First Five-Year Plan From Max Belov. The History of a Soviet Collective Farm Family Organization From Law on the Abolition of Legal Abortion (May 1936) Destruction of the Opposition Purges: The Official Explanation XIV EUROPE -- THE 1920S TO WORLD WAR II ECONOMIC DEPRESSION AND SOCIAL UNREST England From Men without Work: A Report Made to the Pilgrim Trust, 1938 France From Program of the Popular Front (January 10, 1936) Germany From The Times (May 28, 1932) THE RISE OF FASCISM Italy From Benito Mussolini. The Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism Germany From The Autobiography of an Anti-Semite From Adolph Hitler. Mein Kampf The Spanish Civil War From George Orwell. Looking Back on the Spanish War WORLD WAR II The Outbreak of War From Chamberlain's Statement to the Press (September 1938) From Hitler's Speech to the Reichstag (September 1, 1939) From Chamberlain's Announcement of War with Germany (September 3, 1939) W. H. Auden, September 1, 1939 The Fall of France From Alexander Werth. The Last Days of Paris The Battle of Britain From The Times (April 12, 1941) War in the Pacific Japan's Declaration of War on the United States and Great Britain (December 8, 1941) Roosevelt's Request for a Declaration of War on Japan (December 8, 1941) THE WAR ENDS D-Day, June 6, 1944 Churchill's Announcement to the House of Commons (June 6, 1944) The Bombing of Hiroshima Truman Announces Use of A-Bomb at Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) The Human Costs From Deposition by Mrs. Liuba Daniel on the Stutthof Concentration Camp XV POSTWAR POLITICS -- COLD WAR AND THIRD WORLD THE THREAT OF NUCLEAR WAR Three Approaches From Philip Toynbee. The Fearful Choice (1959) From Edward Teller. The Legacy of Hiroshima (1962) From Pope John XXIII. Pacem in Terris (1963) THE COLD WAR BEGINS Yalta and the Aftermath From Minutes of the Yalta Conference From Letter of President Roosevelt to Premier Stalin (April 1, 1945) From Minutes of White House Conference From Letter of Premier Stalin to President Truman (April 24, 1945) The Iron Curtain From Winston Churchill's Speech at Fulton, Missouri (March 5, 1946) From Stalin's Reply to Churchill From Speech of President Truman From Testimony of John Foster Dulles Atlantic Alliance From General George C. Marshall's Speech (June 5, 1947) From Speech of Andrei Vyshinski (September 18, 1947) From The North Atlantic Treaty CONCILIATION AND CONFLICT Peaceful Coexistence From Khrushchev's Public Speech From Krushchev's Secret Speech Hungary From Statement of the Soviet Government (October 30, 1956 ) From Imry Nage's Last Message (November 4, 1956) Vietnam From President Lyndon B. Johnson's News Conference (July 28, 1965) From Senator J. William Fulbright's Speech (April 2, 1970) China From Speech of President Richard M. Nixon (February 28, 1972) THE END OF THE COLD WAR Nuclear Disarmament From Statement of Mikhail Gorbachev (January 15, 1986) Eastern Europe From Speech of Mikhail Gorbachev (December 9, 1989) From Speech of Margaret Thatcher (February 18, 1990) After Gorbachev From Anatoly Chubais. Main Issues of Privatisation ISRAEL AND THE ARABS The Zionist Case From Statement of the World Zionist Conference (1945) The Arab Case From Statement of the Arab Higher Committee (1948) THE THIRD WORLD India From Mohandas Gandhi. Satyagraha Africa From Kwame Nkrumah. I Speak of Freedom (1961) Cuba From Fidel Castro Speaks XVI THE MODERN WORLD -- HOPES AND ANXIETIES HUMAN RIGHTS -- IDEALS AND REALITIES Ideals Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) Realities From Amnesty International Report (1995) POPULATION, ECOLOGY, NATURAL RESOURCES Population Pressures From World Health From M. Mesarovic and E. Pestel. Mankind at the Turning Point Natural Resources From E. F. Schumacher. Small Is Beautiful From Population Control: For and Against REVOLUTIONARY PROTEST Revolutionary Theory From H. Marcuse. An Essay on Liberation France From The French Student Revolt Germany From The Urban Guerrilla Concept WOMEN AND FAMILY Women's Roles From Simone de Beauvoir. The Second Sex Feminist Protest Adrienne Rich. Translations Backlash From Susan Faludi. Backlash SCIENCE AND HUMAN VALUES Evolution and Matter From William Provine. Chance and Necessity Evolution and Spirit From John Paul II. Magisterium and Evolutionshow more