The Western Humanities

The Western Humanities

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This chronologically organized introduction to the Western humanities (art, music, history, literature, and drama) establishes the historical context of each era before the arts are discussed. More than 600 illustrations appear throughout the text, "Personal Perspectives" boxes bring to life the events of the day, and brief sections at the end of each chapter describe the cultural legacy of the era discussed. "The Western Humanities" is also available in two volumes: "Volume I" covers prehistory through the Renaissance; "Volume II" spans the period from the Renaissance through the more

Product details

  • Paperback | 704 pages
  • 215.9 x 274.32 x 32.51mm | 1,868.79g
  • McGraw-Hill Education - Europe
  • McGraw Hill Higher Education
  • London, United States
  • English
  • Complete ed of 5th revised ed
  • 0072556323
  • 9780072556322

Table of contents

The Western Humanities, 5/e Preface Introduction: Why Study Cultural History? A Humanities Primer: How to Understand the Arts Chapter 1 PREHISTORY AND NEAR EASTERN CIVILIZATIONS Prehistory and Early Cultures The Civilizations of the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley: Mesopotamia The Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian Kingdoms The Cradle of Civilization Writing Religion Literature Personal Perspective: "A Sumerian Father Lectures His Son" Law Art and Architecture The Civilization of the Nile River Valley: Egypt Continuity and Change over Three Thousand Years A Quest for Eternal Cultural Values Religion Writing and Literature Personal Perspective: "The Instruction of Amenemope" Architecture Sculpture, Painting, and Minor Arts Heirs to the Mesopotamian and Egyptian Empires The Legacy of Early Near Eastern Civilizations Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 1 Highlights Windows on the World: 5000 - 500 B.C. Chapter 2 AEGEAN CIVILIZATIONS: THE MINOANS, THE MYCENAEANS, AND THE GREEKS OF THE ARCHAIC AGE Prelude: Minoan Civilization, 3000 - 1300 B.C. Beginnings: Mycenaean Civilization, 1900 - 1100 B.C. Interlude: The Dark Ages, 1100 - 800 B.C. The Archaic Age, 800 - 479 B.C. Political, Economic, and Social Structures The Greek Polis: Sparta and Athens The Persian Wars The Emergence of Greek Genius: The Mastery of Form Religion Epic Poetry Personal Perspective: Sappho, "He Seems to Be a God"; Alcaeus, "Longing for Home and Drinking Song" Lyric Poetry Natural Philosophy Architecture Sculpture The Legacy of Archaic Greek Civilization Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 2 Highlights Chapter 3 CLASSICAL GREEK CIVILIZATION: THE HELLENIC AGE General Characteristics of Hellenic Civilization Domestic and Foreign Affairs: War, Peace, and the Triumph of Macedonia The Perfection of the Tradition: The Glory of Hellenic Greece Theater: Tragedy Features of the Greek Theater Encounter: The Representation of Blacks in Greek Art Tragic Drama Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides Theater: Comedy Music History Natural Philosophy The Pre-Socratics The Sophists The Socratic Revolution Plato Aristotle Architecture Sanctuaries The Temple: The Perfection of the Form Personal Perspective: Xenophon, "Secrets of a Successful Marriage" Sculpture The Legacy of Hellenic Civilization Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 3 Highlights Windows on the World: 500 - 300 B.C. Chapter 4 CLASSICAL GREEK CIVILIZATION: THE HELLENISTIC AGE The Stages of Hellenistic History The End of the Empire and the Rise of the States The Arrival and Triumph of Rome The Cities of Hellenistic Civilization Pergamum Alexandria in Egypt Personal Perspective: Theocritus, "Getting to the Concert on Time" The Elaboration of the Greek Tradition: The Spread of Classicism to the Hellenistic World Drama and Literature Philosophy and Religion Cynicism Skepticism Epicureanism Stoicism Fate and the Mystery Cults Architecture The Corinthian Temple The Altar Sculpture Rhodes: Late Hellenistic Style The Legacy of the Hellenistic World Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 4 Highlights Chapter 5 ROMAN CIVILIZATION: THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CENTURIES The Colossus of the Mediterranean World General Characteristics of Roman Civilization The Etruscan and Greek Connections Rome in the Age of Kings, 753-509 B.C. The Roman Republic, 509-31 B.C. The Early Republic, 509-264 B.C. The Middle Republic, 264-133 B.C. The Late Republic, 133-31 B.C. Growing Autocracy: Imperial Rome, 31 B.C.-A.D. 284 Pax Romana, 31 B.C.-A.D. 193 Civil Wars, A.D. 193-284 The Style of Pre-Christian Rome: From Greek Imitation to Roman Grandeur Roman Religion Language, Literature, and Drama The First Literary Period, 250-31 B.C. The Second Literary Period: The Golden Age, 31 B.C.-A.D. 14-200 Personal Perspective: Marcus, Son of Cicero, "Changing My Ways" The Third Literary Period: The Silver Age, A.D. 14-200 Philosophy Stoicism Neo-Platonism Law The Visual Arts Architecture Encounter: Roman Conquests and Romance Languages Sculpture Painting and Mosaics Music The Legacy of Pre-Christian Rome Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 5 Highlights Windows on the World: 300 B.C. - A.D. 500 Chapter 6 JUDAISM AND THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY Judaism The People and Their Religion Egypt, Exodus, and Moses The Kingdom of Israel The Babylonian Captivity and the Postexilic Period The Hellenistic and Roman Periods Societal and Family Relationships Personal Perspective: Flavius Josephus, "The Destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem" The Bible Early Jewish Art and Architecture Christianity The Life of Jesus Christ and the New Testament Christians and Jews Christianity and Greco-Roman Religions and Philosophies Christians in the Roman Empire Personal Perspective: Vibia Perpetua, "Account of Her Last Days Before Martyrdom" Early Christian Literature Early Christian Art The Legacy of Biblical Judaism and Early Christianity Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 6 Highlights Chapter 7 THE CIVILIZATIONS OF LATE ROME, BYZANTIUM, AND THE EARLY MEDIEVAL WEST The Last Days of the Roman Empire Diocletian's Reforms and the Triumph of Christianity, 284-395 The Great Persecution and Christian Toleration Early Christian Developments Christian Rome and the End of the Western Empire, 395-476 Personal Perspective: Paulina, "Epitaph for Agorius Praetextatus" The Transition from Classical Humanism to Christian Civilization Literature, Theology, and History The Fathers of the Church Personal Perspective: St. Jerome, "Secular Education; The Fall of Rome" Church History The Visual Arts Architecture Sculpture Painting and Mosaics Music The Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantine Civilization, 476-1453 History of the Byzantine Empire Byzantine Culture: Christianity and Classicism The Orthodox Religion Law and History Architecture and Mosaics The Early Medieval West The Early Middle Ages: A Romano-Germanic Christianized World Religion and Culture in the Early Middle Ages Christianity: Leadership and Organization Personal Perspective: Anna Comnena, "The Arrival of the First Crusade in Constantinople"; Liudprand of Cremona, "A Mission to the Byzantine Court" Literature, History, and Learning Music Architecture Painting: Illuminated Manuscripts The Legacy of Late Rome, Byzantium, and the Early Medieval West Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 7 Highlights Windows on the World: 500-1000 Chapter 8 THE WORLD OF ISLAM, 630-1517 Muhammad, The Prophet Imperial Islam The Post-Muhammad Years The Umayyad Dynasty The Abbasid Dynasty The Seljuk Turk Empire Imperial Decline Islam as Religion Encounter: An International Community of Scholars Medieval Islamic Culture Scholarship Literature Poetry Prose Art and Architecture Architecture Painting Personal Perspective: Abu'l-Faraj al-Isfahani, "Marketing a Product" Music The Legacy of Medieval Islam Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 8 Highlights Chapter 9 THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES: THE CHRISTIAN CENTURIES Feudalism The Feudal System and the Feudal Society Peasant Life The Rise of Towns The Feudal Monarchy The French Monarchy The English Monarchy The Holy Roman Empire The Papal Monarchy Medieval Christianity and the Church Encounter: Pagan Vikings versus Christian Europeans Christian Beliefs and Practices Religious Ord ers and Lay Piety Personal Perspective: Abelard and Heloise, "My Sorrow and My Loss" The Age of Synthesis: Equilibrium Between the Spiritual and the Secular Learning and Theology Cathedral Schools and the Development of Scholasticism Peter Abelard The Rise of the Universities Intellectual Controversy and Thomas Aquinas Literature Monastic and Feudal Writing Vernacular and Courtly Writing Dante Architecture and Art Romanesque Churches and Related Arts Gothic Churches and Related Arts Early Gothic Style, 1145-1194 High Gothic Style, 1194-1300 Music The Legacy of the Christian Centuries Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 9 Highlights Windows on the World: 1000 - 1300 Chapter 10 THE LATE MIDDLE AGES: 1300 - 1500 Hard Times Come to Europe Ordeal by Plague, Famine, and War Depopulation, Rebellion, and Industrialization The Secular Monarchies The Papal Monarchy The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages Religion Personal Perspective: Henry Knighton,"Political and Religious Rebels" Theology, Philosophy, and Science The Via Antiqua Versus the Via Moderna Duns Scotus and William of Ockham Developments in Science Literature Northern Italian Literature: Petrarch and Boccacio English Literature: Geoffrey Chaucer French Literature: Christine de Pizan Art and Architecture Late Gothic Architecture Late Gothic Sculpture Late Gothic Painting and the Rise of New Trends Illuminated Manuscripts The Print New Trends in Italy: Giotto Flemish Painting: Jan Van Eyck and Hans Memling Music The Legacy of the Late Middle Ages Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestion for Listening Chapter 10 Highlights Windows on the World: 1300 - 1500 Chapter 11 THE EARLY RENAISSANCE: RETURN TO CLASSICAL ROOTS, 1400 - 1494 The Renaissance: Schools of Interpretation Early Renaissance History and Institutions Italian City-States During the Early Renaissance Florence, the Center of the Renaissance The Resurgent Papcy, 1450-1500 The Spirit and Style of the Early Renaissance Humanism, Scholarship, and Schooling Personal Perspective: Laura Cereta, "Defense of the Liberal Instruction of Women" Thought and Philosophy Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting Artistic Ideals and Innovations Architecture Sculpture Painting Music The Legacy of the Early Renaissance Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestion for Listening Chapter 11 Highlights Chapter 12 THE HIGH RENAISSANCE AND EARLY MANNERISM, 1494 - 1564 The Rise of the Modern Sovereign State The Struggle for Italy, 1494-1529 Charles V and the Hapsburg Empire Economic Expansion and Social Developments From High Renaissance to Early Mannerism Literature Gaspara Stampa Castiglione Machiavelli Painting Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael The Venetian School: Giorgione and Titian The School of Parma: Parmigianino Sculpture Personal Perspective: Giorgio Vasari, "Michelangelo Has the Last Word" Architecture Music The Legacy of the High Renaissance and Early Mannerism Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestions for Listening Chapter 12 Highlights Chapter 13 NORTHERN HUMANISM, NORTHERN RENAISSANCE, RELIGIOUS REFORMATIONS, AND LATE MANNERISM, 1500 - 1603 Northern Humanism The Northern Renaissance Northern Renaissance Literature Michel de Montaigne William Shakespeare Northern Renaissance Painting Albrecht Durer Mathias Grunewald Hieronymus Bosch Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Breakup of Christendom: Causes of the Religious Reformations The Protestant Order Luther's Revolt Luther's Beliefs Social and Political Implications of Luther's Revolt Personal Perspective: Albrecht Durer, "Fears for Luther's Safety" The Reforms of John Calvin The Reform of the English Church The Counter-Reformation The Reformed Papacy New Monastic Orders The Council of Trent Warfare as a Response to Religious Dissent, 1520-1603 Late Mannerism Spanish Painting Spanish Literature Late Mannerist Painting in Italy: Tintoretto Music in Late-Sixteenth-Century Italy and England The Legacy of Northern Humanism, Northern Renaissance, Religious Reformations, and Late Mannerism Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestions for Listening Chapter 13 Highlights Windows on the World: 1500 - 1600 Chapter 14 THE BAROQUE AGE: GLAMOUR AND GRANDIOSITY, 1600 - 1715 Absolutism, Monarchy, and the Balance of Power France: The Supreme Example of Absolutism England: From Monarchy to Republic to Limited Monarchy Warfare in the Baroque Period: Maintaining the Balance of Power The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648 Personal Perspective: Louis XIV, "Reflections on Power"; Duke of Saint-Simon, "Memoirs" The Wars of Louis XIV, 1665-1713 The Baroque: Variations on an International Style The Florid Baroque Architecture Sculpture Painting The Classical Baroque Architecture Painting The Restrained Baroque Painting Architecture Literature Baroque Literature in France Baroque Literature in England Music The Legacy of the Baroque Age Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestions for Listening Chapter 14 Highlights Windows on the World: 1600 - 1700 Chapter 15 THE BAROQUE AGE II: REVOLUTIONS IN SCIENTIFIC AND POLITICAL THOUGHT, 1600 - 1715 Theories of the Universe before the Scientific Revolution The Magical and the Practical in the Scientific Revolution Astronomy and Physics: From Copernicus to Newton Nicolas Copernicus Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei Isaac Newton Medicine and Chemistry The Impact of Science on Philosophy Francis Bacon Rene Descartes Blaise Pascal Ironies and Contradictions of the Scientific Revolution Personal Perspective: Suzanne Gaudry, "A Witch's Trial" The Revolution in Political Thought Natural Law and Divine Right: Grotius and Bossuet Absolutism and Liberalism: Hobbes and Locke European Exploration and Expansion Responses to the Revolutions in Thought Encounter: The Sinews of Trade The Spread of Ideas Impact on the Arts The Legacy of the Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 15 Highlights Chapter 16 THE AGE OF REASON, 1700 - 1789 The Enlightenment The Philosophers and Their Program Deism The Encyclopedia The Physiocrats The Great Powers During the Age of Reason Society: Continuity and Change Absolutism, Limited Monarchy, and Enlightened Despotism France: The Successors to the Sun King Great Britain and the Hanoverian Kings Enlightened Despotism in Central and Eastern Europe Cultural Trends in the Eighteenth Century: From Rococo to Neoclassical The Rococo Style in the Arts Rococo Painting Rococo Interiors The English Response The Challenge of Neoclassicism Neoclassical Painting Neoclassical Architecture Political Philosophy Literature French Writers: The Development of New Forms Neoclassicism in English Literature Personal Perspective: Lady Mary Wortley Montague, "Letter to Wortley, Avignon, 25 March 1744" The Rise of the Novel Music The Legacy of the Age of Reason Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestions for Listening Chapter 16 Highlights Windows on the World: 1700 - 1800 Chapter 17 REVOLUTION, REACTION, AND CULTURAL RESPONSE, 1760 - 1830 The Industrial Revolution Industrialization in England Classical Economics: The Rationale for Industrialization Political Revolutions, 1760 - 1815 The American Revolution The French Revolution Encounter: Slavery and the French Revolution Reaction, 1815 - 1830 Revolutions i n Art and Ideas: From Neoclassicism to Romanticism Neoclassicism in Literature After 1789 Neoclassical Painting and Architecture After 1789 Romanticism: Its Spirit and Expression The Romantic Movement in Literature Romantic Painting German Idealism The Birth of Romantic Music Personal Perspective: Hector Berlioz, "This Harmonious Revolution" The Legacy of the Age of Revolution and Reaction Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestions for Listening Chapter 17 Highlights Chapter 18 THE TRIUMPH OF THE BOURGEOISIE, 1830 - 1871 The Political and Economic Scene: Liberalism and Nationalism The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 European Affairs in the Grip of Realpolitik Limited Reform in France and Great Britain Wars and Unification in Central Europe Civil War in the United States The Spread of Industrialism Encounter: The Tragedy of the Cherokee Nation Nineteenth-Century Thought: Philosophy, Religion, and Science Liberalism Redefined Socialism Religion and the Challenge of Science Personal Perspective: Charlotte Bronte, "The First World's Fair"; Hippolyte Taine, "A Day at the Races, 28 May, 1861" Cultural Trends: From Romanticism to Realism Literature The Height of French Romanticism Romanticism in the English Novel Romanticism in American Literature Realism in French and English Novels The Russian Realists Realism Among African American Writers Art and Architecture Neoclassicism and Romanticism After 1830 The Rise of Realism in Art Photography Music The Legacy of the Bourgeois Age Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestions for Listening Chapter 18 Highlights Windows on the World, 1800 - 1900 Chapter 19 THE AGE OF EARLY MODERNISM, 1871 - 1914 Europe's Rise to World Leadership The Second Industrial Revolution and the Making of Modern Life Response to Industrialism: Politics and Crisis Domestic Policies in the Heavily Industrialized West Personal Perspective: Lady Constance Lytton, "Paying a Price for the Right to Vote" Domestic Policies in Central and Eastern Europe Imperialism and International Relations The Scramble for Colonies The Outbreak of World War I Early Modernism Philosophy and Psychology Literature Naturalistic Literature Decadence in Literature Expressionist Literature The Advance of Science The Modernist Revolution in Art Impressionism Encounter: The French Impressionists Meet Ukiyo-e Art Post-Impressionism Fauvism, Cubism, and Expressionism New Directions in Sculpture and Architecture Music: From Impressionism to Jazz The Legacy of Early Modernism Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestions for Listening Chapter 19 Highlights Chapter 20 THE AGE OF THE MASSES AND THE ZENITH OF MODERNISM, 1914 - 1945 The Collapse of Old Certainties and the Search for New Values World War I and Its Aftermath The Great Depression of the 1930s The Rise of Totalitarianism Russian Communism European Fascism World War II: Origins and Outcome Personal Perspective: Elie Wiesel, "Surviving in a Nazi Death Camp" The Zenith of Modernism Experimentation in Literature The Novel Poetry Drama Philosophy and Science: The End of Certainty Art, Architecture, and Film Painting Abstraction Primitivism and Fantasy Expressionism Architecture Film Music: Atonality, Neoclassicism, and an American Idiom The Legacy of the Age of the Masses and High Modernism Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestions for Listening Chapter 20 Highlights Windows on the World: 1900 - 1945 Chapter 21 THE AGE OF ANXIETY AND BEYOND, 1945 - From a European to a World Civilization The Era of the Superpowers, 1945-1970 Postwar Recovery and the New World Order The Cold War Emergence of the Third World Toward a New Global Order, 1970 and Beyond National Issues and International Realignment The Post-Cold War World The End of Modernism and the Birth of Post-Modernism Philosophical, Political, and Social Thought Science and Technology The Literature of Late Modernism: Fiction, Poetry, and Drama The Literature of Post-Modernism Late Modernism and the Arts Painting Sculpture Architecture Post-Modernism and the Arts Painting Sculpture Installation Art Video Art Architecture Personal Perspective: Yo-Yo Ma, "A Journey of Discovery" Late Modern and Post-Modern Music Performance Art Mass Culture A Summing Up Key Cultural Terms Suggestions for Further Reading Suggestions for Listening Chapter 21 Highlights Windows on the World, 1945 - APPENDIX Writing for the Humanities: Research Papers and Essay Examinations GLOSSARY CREDITS INDEXshow more