Water Resources and Control Processes

Water Resources and Control Processes : Volume 4

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The past few years have seen the emergence of a growing, widespread desire in this country, and indeed everywhere, that positive actions be taken to restore the quality of our environment, and to protect it from the degrading effects of all forms of pollution-air, noise, solid waste, and water. Since pollution is a direct or indirect consequence of waste, if there is no waste, there can be no pollution, and the seemingly idealistic demand for "zero discharge" can be construed as a demand for zero waste. However, as long as there is waste, we can only attempt to abate the consequent pollution by converting it to a less noxious form. In those instances in which a particular type of pollution has been recognized, three major questions usually arise: (1) How serious is the pollution? (2) Is the technology to abate it available? and (3) Do the costs of abatement justify the degree of abatement achieved? The principal intention of this series of books on environmental engineering is to help the reader formu- late useful answers to the second and third of these questions, i. e. , to outline the best currently available engineering solutions, and to examine their costs in the light of the real level of benefits afforded.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 496 pages
  • 154.94 x 234.95 x 29.97mm | 789.25g
  • Totowa, NJ, United States
  • English
  • Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1986
  • XVIII, 496 p.
  • 1461291771
  • 9781461291770

Table of contents

1 Surface Water Quality Analysis.- I. Introduction.- II. Mathematical Simulation of the Surface Water System.- A. Water Quality Model Formulation.- B. Transport and Transformation.- C. Mathematical Model and Computer Application.- D. Modeling Procedures.- III. Oxygen Consumption and Replenishment in Receiving Waters.- A. Biochemical Decay of Carbonaceous Waste Materials.- B. Nitrification.- C. Photosynthesis and Respiration.- D. Sediment Oxygen Demand.- E. Atmospheric Reaeration.- IV. Coliform Bacteria Die-Off.- V. Modeling Application in Surface Water Quality.- A. River Analysis.- B. Estuary Analysis.- C. Lake Analysis.- Nomenclature.- References.- Appendix A.- Appendix B.- Appendix C.- 2 Water Quality Control of Tidal Rivers and Estuaries.- I. Introduction.- II. Water Quality Parameters.- A. Conservative Substances.- B. Reactive Substances.- C. Sequentially Reactive Constituents.- D. Surface Transfer Coefficient, Reaeration Coefficient, and Deoxygenation Coefficient.- E. Assimilation Ratio.- F. Estuarine Number.- G. Dispersion Coefficient.- H. Advective Velocity.- III. Basic Mathematical Models.- IV. Working Models.- A. Steady-State Equations for Waste Concentrations in Tidal Rivers and Estuaries Resulting from a Point Source of Pollution.- B. Steady-State Equations for Waste Concentrations in Tidal Rivers and Estuaries Resulting from a Distributed Source of Pollution.- C. Alternate Working Models and Systems Identification for Tidal Rivers.- V. Practical Examples.- Nomenclature.- References.- 3 Cooling of Thermal Discharges.- I. Introduction.- II. Cooling Ponds.- A. Mechanism of Heat Dissipation.- B. Design of Cooling Lakes.- III. Cooling Towers.- A. Mechanism of Heat Dissipation.- B. Definitions.- C. Types of Towers.- D. Problems Associated with Cooling Tower Operations.- E. Costs.- References.- 4 Control of Reservoirs and Lakes.- I. Introduction.- II. Special Features of Water.- III. Hydrology.- IV. Evaporation.- V. Transpiration.- VI. Evapotranspiration.- VII. Infiltration and Percolation.- VIII. Runoff.- IX. Groundwater.- X. Impact of Pollution on Lakes.- XI. Thermal Impacts on the Aquatic Environment.- XII. Toxics in Water Resources.- XIII. Goals of Water Pollution Control.- References.- 5 Deep-Well Disposal.- I. Introduction.- II. Basic Well Designs.- III. Evaluation of a Proposed Injection Well Site.- A. Confinement Conditions.- B. Potential Receptor Zones.- C. Subsurface Hydrodynamics.- IV. Potential Hazards-Ways to Prevent, Detect, and Correct Them.- A. Fluid Movement During Construction, Testing, and Operation of the System.- B. Failure of the Aquifer to Receive and Transmit the Injected Fluids.- C. Failure of the Confining Layer.- D. Failure of an Individual Well.- E. Failures Because of Human Error.- V. Economic Evaluation of a Proposed Injection Well System.- VI. Use of Injection Wells in Wastewater Management.- A. Reuse for Engineering Purposes.- B. Injection Wells as a Part of the Treatment System.- C. Storage of Municipal Wastewaters for Reuse.- D. Storage of Industrial Wastewaters.- E. Disposal of Toxic Wastewaters.- F. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes.- G. Disposal of Municipal and Industrial Sludges.- VII. Protection of Usable Aquifers.- A. Pathway 1: Migration of Fluids Through a Faulty Injection Well Casing.- B. Pathway 2: Migration of Fluids Upward Through the Annulus Between the Casing and the Well Bore.- C. Pathway 3: Migration of Fluids from an Injection Zone Through the Confining Strata.- D. Pathway 4: Vertical Migration of Fluids Through Improperly Abandoned and Improperly Completed Wells.- E. Pathway 5: Lateral Migration of Fluids from Within an Injection Zone into a Protected Portion of that Strata.- F. Pathway 6: Direct Injection of Fluids into or Above an Underground Source of Drinking Water.- VIII. Nomenclature.- IX. Practical Examples.- References.- 6 Chemical Control of Pests and Vectors.- I. Introduction.- II. Pests and Poisons.- III. Control of Organisms Pathogenic to Humans.- IV. Chemical Control of Vector Organisms.- A. Vertebrates.- B. Arthropods.- V. Chemical Control of Organisms Destructive or Pathogenic to Plants.- VI. Chemical Control of Nuisance Organisms.- A. Terrestrial Plants.- B. Aquatic Plants.- C. Arthropods.- D. Vertebrates.- VII. Pollution from Chemical Poisons.- A. Zone of Influence.- B. Biological Magnification.- C. Toxic Effects on Human Health.- VIII. Alternatives to Chemical Poisoning.- A. Prevention Programs.- B. Conclusion.- References.- 7 Management of Radioactive Wastes.- I. Introduction.- A. Historical.- B. Effects of Radioactivity on Matter.- C. Effects of Radioactivity on Humans.- D. Energy Relations.- E. Magnitude of the Problem.- II. Sources of Radioactive Wastes.- A. Nuclear Fuel Cycle.- B. Research, Development, and Commercial Applications.- C. Medical.- III. Transport Mechanisms.- A. Air.- B. Water.- C. Concentration.- IV. Waste Management.- A. Principles of Treatment.- B. Plan for Waste Management.- C. Methods of Treatment.- D. Ultimate Disposal.- V. Surveillance.- A. Monitoring.- VI. Protection.- A. Principles.- B. Population Protection.- VII. Costs.- A. Various Treatment and Disposal Methods.- B. Relation to Benefits.- VIII. Anticipated Future Problems.- A. Long-Lived Isotopes.- B. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors.- C. Liquid-Metal Fast-Breeder Reactors.- D. Krypton-85.- E. Fusion.- IX. Summary.- References.- 8 Drying and Evaporation Processes.- I. Introduction.- II. Natural Dewatering.- A. Drying Sand Beds.- B. Drying Lagoons.- III. Thermal Drying.- A. Tray Dryers.- B. Rotary Dryers.- C. Flash Dryers.- D. Spray Dryers.- E. Toroidal Dryers.- F. Multiple Hearth Furnaces.- IV. Evaporation.- V. Theory of Drying.- A. Water Evaporation and Thermal Drying.- B. Theory of Gravity Dewatering.- VI. Theory of Evaporation.- A. Heat Transfer.- B. Heat and Material Balance.- C. Multiple-Effect Evaporators.- Nomenclature.- References.- 9 Dredging Operations and Waste Disposal.- I. Introduction.- II. Type of Dredges.- A. Clamshell Dredge.- B. Dipper Dredge.- C. Pipeline Dredge.- D. Hopper Dredge.- III. Sources of Pollution from Dredging Operations.- IV. Dredge Disposal and Environmental Enhancement Alternatives.- A. Open Water Disposal.- B. Creating New Land in Diked Disposal Areas.- C. Wildlife Enhancement in Diked Disposal Areas.- D. Additional Disposal Alternatives.- E. Environmental Enhancement by Modifications of Dredging Schedules and Equipment.- V. Dredge Transport Alternatives.- A. Long Distance Piping.- B. Mechanical Transport Methods.- VI. Dredge Containment Alternatives.- A. Retaining Dike with Stone, Sand, or Carbon Filter..- B. Retaining Dike with Sluices.- C. Retaining Dike with Divider.- VII. Dredge Treatment Alternatives.- A. Processes Available for Sediment-Water Separation.- B. Processes Available for Treatment of Spoil Water.- VIII. Quality Criteria of Treated Sediment and Water.- IX. Economic Aspects of Dredging Treatment.- X. Conclusions and Summary.- XI. Practical Examples.- References.
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