Veterinary Anesthetic and Monitoring Equipment
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Veterinary Anesthetic and Monitoring Equipment

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Description

Veterinary Anesthetic and Monitoring Equipment is the first veterinary-specific resource solely dedicated to anesthetic and monitoring equipment used in clinical practice.



Offers a practical guide to anesthetic and monitoring equipment commonly used in veterinary medicine
Provides clinically oriented guidance to troubleshooting problems that may occur
Discusses general principles applicable to any equipment found in the practice
Presents information associated with novel anesthetic equipment and monitors
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Product details

  • Hardback | 552 pages
  • 217 x 283 x 26mm | 1,588g
  • Wiley-Blackwell
  • Hoboken, United States
  • English
  • 1119277159
  • 9781119277156

Back cover copy

Veterinary Anesthetic and Monitoring Equipment

Veterinary Anesthetic and Monitoring Equipment is the first veterinary-specific resource solely dedicated to anesthetic and monitoring equipment used in clinical practice. This illustrated patient-side guide focuses on general principles applicable to any brand of equipment, highlighting some newer technologies, and includes practical troubleshooting tips and tricks. The book helps clinicians to understand their equipment's functionality and to solve problems encountered in daily practice.

Emphasizing clinical applications, Veterinary Anesthetic and Monitoring Equipment covers gas supply and distribution, anesthesia machines, breathing systems, airway equipment, monitoring equipment, equipment in different environments, and equipment care. A section on unique species considerations includes dedicated chapters on dogs and cats, ruminants, horses, swine, birds, rabbits, rodents, fish and amphibians, reptiles, and primates. Offers a practical guide to anesthetic and monitoring equipment commonly used in veterinary medicine Provides clinically oriented guidance to troubleshooting problems that may occur Discusses general principles applicable to any equipment found in the practice Presents information associated with novel anesthetic equipment and monitors

Veterinary Anesthetic and Monitoring Equipment is an essential reference for any veterinary clinician performing anesthesia, including veterinary specialists, clinicians, and veterinary technicians.
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Table of contents

List of Contributors xvii


Preface xxi


1 Medical Gas Cylinders and Pipeline Systems 1
Carl Bradbrook


1.1 Medical Gas Cylinders 1


1.2 Liquid Oxygen Tanks 8


1.3 Oxygen Concentrators 9


1.4 Medical Gas Pipeline Systems 9


References 15


2 Oxygen Concentrators 17
Allan Williamson


2.1 Introduction 17


2.2 Function 17


2.3 Product Gas 17


2.4 Clinical Use 18


2.5 Advantages 20


2.6 Disadvantages 20


2.7 Hazards 20


2.8 Summary 21


References 21


3 Small Animal Anesthetic Machines and Equipment 23
Craig Mosley and Amanda Shelby


3.1 Introduction 23


3.2 Safety and Design 23


3.3 The Basic Veterinary Anesthetic Machine 23


3.4 Breathing Systems 33


3.5 Waste Gas Scavenge Systems 33


3.6 Routine Anesthesia Machine Checkout Procedures 33


References 34


4 Large Animal Anesthesia Machines and Equipment 35
Amanda Shelby


4.1 History of the Large Animal Anesthesia Machine 35


4.2 Purpose 35


4.3 Standards 35


4.4 Similarity to Small Animal Machines 35


4.5 Components of the Anesthesia Machine 36


4.6 Large Animal Anesthesia Workstations 41


4.7 Common Commercially Available Machines 41


4.8 General Cautions 51


4.9 Miscellaneous Equipment for Large Animal Anesthesia 51


References 53


5 Anesthetic Vaporizers 55
Sharon Fornes, Kristen G. Cooley, and Rebecca A. Johnson


5.1 Introduction 55


5.2 Vaporizer Physics 55


5.3 Vaporizer Classification 56


5.4 Other Factors Affecting Vaporizers 62


5.5 Maintenance and Repair 64


5.6 Current Vaporizer Standards 65


5.7 The Modern Vaporizer 65


5.8 Specific Vaporizers 66


5.9 Summary 71


References 71


6 Anesthetic Ventilators 73
Katrina Lafferty


6.1 Introduction 73


6.2 Ventilator Function in the Breathing Circuit 73


6.3 Tidal Volume Delivery 73


6.4 Driving Gas 74


6.5 Bellows Construction 75


6.6 Pressure Limiting Controls 76


6.7 Gas Pressure Alarm 77


6.8 Exhaust Valve 77


6.9 Spill Valve 77


6.10 Ventilator Hose Connection or Ventilator Hose Switch 77


6.11 Ventilation Modes 78


6.12 Cleaning and Sterilization 79


6.13 Pressure Checking 79


6.14 General Concerns and Troubleshooting 80


6.15 Pediatric Ventilation 81


6.16 Basic Ventilator?Patient Set?up 82


6.17 Small Animal Mechanical Ventilators 82


6.18 Large Animal Mechanical Ventilators 85


6.19 Conclusion 89


References 89


7 Humidification and Positive Pressure Equipment 91
Stephanie Keating and Stuart Clark?Price


7.1 Humidification 91


7.2 Positive Pressure Equipment 96


References 98


8 Waste Anesthetic Gas Collection and Consequences 101
Heidi Reuss?Lamky


8.1 Introduction 101


8.2 Occupational WAG Exposure 101


8.3 Physical Properties and Elimination 102


8.4 Pharmacodynamics 102


8.5 History of Governmental Regulations and Trace (Waste) Gas Exposure 104


8.6 WAG Exposure Level Recommendations 104


8.7 Reducing Environmental WAG Exposure 104


8.8 The Anesthetist's Responsibility 107


8.9 Monitoring WAG Exposure 112


8.10 Summary 112


References 113


9 Hazards of the Anesthetic Delivery System and Operating Room Fires 115
Odette O


9.1 Hazards of the Anesthetic Delivery System 115


9.2 Operating Room Fires 123


References 125


10 Components of the Breathing System 127
Craig Mosley and Amanda Shelby


10.1 Breathing Systems 127


10.2 Summary 139


References 139


11 Mapleson Breathing Systems 141
Tatiana Ferreira


11.1 Introduction 141


11.2 Fresh Gas Flows (FGFs) 141


11.3 Advantages and Disadvantages 141


11.4 Choice of System 143


11.5 Specific System Types 143


11.6 Combined Systems 150


11.7 Respiratory Gas Monitoring 150


11.8 Potential Hazards 151


References 152


12 The Circle System 155
Geoffrey Truchetti and Trish Anne Farry


12.1 Introduction 155


12.2 Components 155


12.3 Component Arrangement 162


12.4 Gas Flow 164


12.5 Resistance and Work of Breathing in the Circle System 166


12.6 Dead Space 166


12.7 Heat and Moisture 167


12.8 Maintenance 167


12.9 Advantages/Disadvantages 168


References 168


13 Laryngoscopes 171
Erin Wendt?Hornickle


13.1 History 171


13.2 Laryngoscope Use 171


13.3 Description 171


13.4 Fiber Optic Endoscopes 174


13.5 Veterinary?Specific Laryngoscopes 175


13.6 Summary 175


References 176


14 Supraglottic Airway Devices and Tracheal Tubes and Stylets 177
Jennifer Sager


14.1 Introduction 177


14.2 Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) 177


14.3 Veterinary?gel (v?gel (R)) Airway Device 178


14.4 Endotracheal Tubes 179


14.5 Large Animal Endotracheal Tubes 184


14.6 Reinforced Tubes 185


14.7 Laser Safe Tubes 185


14.8 Single Lung Intubation 186


14.9 Stylets 187


14.10 Cuff Pressure Manometers 188


14.11 Summary 190


References 190


15 Oxygen Delivery Systems 193
Jonathan Bach


15.1 Introduction 193


15.2 Oxygen Supplementation Techniques 193


15.3 Hyperbaric Oxygen 197


References 197


16 Gas Monitoring 199
Louise O'Dwyer


16.1 Introduction 199


16.2 Capnometry/Capnography 199


16.3 Oxygen Measurement 207


16.4 Nitrous Oxide and Inhalation Agent Analyzers 208


16.5 Blood Gas Analysis: Partial Pressures of Oxygen and CO2 210


16.6 Conclusion 210


References 210


17 Airway Volumes, Flows and Pressures 213
Andrew Claude and Alanna Johnson


17.1 Introduction 213


17.2 Definitions 213


17.3 Volume and Flow Measurement Devices 214


17.4 The Ventilatory (Respiratory) Cycle 218


17.5 Airway Pressure Monitoring 219


17.6 Spirometry Loops 219


References 222


18 Pulse Oximetry 223
Odette O


18.1 Introduction 223


18.2 History 223


18.3 Importance of Pulse Oximetry 223


18.4 Function 224


18.5 Pulse Oximeter Probes 224


18.6 Uses 225


18.7 Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curves in Different Species 225


18.8 Patient Factors 226


18.9 Abnormal Hemoglobin 227


18.10 Sources of Error 227


18.11 Perfusion Index (PI) and Plethysmograph Variability Index (PVI) 228


18.12 Other Pulse Oximeter Models 229


18.13 Low Saturation Alarms 231


18.14 Pulse Oximetry Use in the Recovery Period 231


18.15 Summary 231


References 232


19 Cardiovascular Monitoring 235
Anderson Favaro da Cunha and Rebecca A. Johnson


19.1 Introduction 235


19.2 Definitions 235


19.3 Measurement Techniques 235


19.4 Patient Point of View 244


19.5 Central Venous Pressure (CVP) 245


19.6 Cardiac Output Monitoring 246


19.7 Conclusion 248


References 248


20 Electrocardiography 253
Tracey Lawrence


20.1 Overview 253


20.2 The ECG Machine 253


20.3 Lead Systems 254


20.4 Mean Electrical Axis (MEA) 257


20.5 ECG Cycle 258


20.6 Electrode Placement 260


20.7 ECG Filters 263


20.8 Evaluating the ECG 264


20.9 Equipment Maintenance 268


20.10 Summary 268


References 269


21 Neuromuscular Transmission Monitoring 271
Molly Allen and Rebecca A. Johnson


21.1 Introduction 271


21.2 Neuromuscular Transmission 271


21.3 Peripheral Nerve Stimulation 271


21.4 Monitoring Techniques 275


21.5 Other Equipment 279


References 280


22 Temperature Regulation and Monitoring 285
Caroline Baldo and Darci Palmer


22.1 Introduction 285


22.2 Heat and Thermodynamics 285


22.3 Thermoregulation 285


22.4 Types of Heat Loss 286


22.5 Heat Loss During Anesthesia 287


22.6 Effects of Hypothermia and Hyperthermia 288


22.7 Re?Warming 289


22.8 Temperature Monitoring Devices 290


22.9 Sites of Temperature Monitoring 291


22.10 Warming Devices 293


22.11 Active Warming Devices 293


22.12 Other Techniques to Minimize Heat Loss 298


22.13 High?Risk Heating Methods 299


References 300


23 Fluid Regulation and Monitoring 303
Julie Walker


23.1 Overview of Fluid Physiology 303


23.2 Assessment of Fluid Balance 304


23.3 Advanced Fluid Balance Monitoring Techniques 307


23.4 Fluid Therapy 311


23.5 Equipment for Fluid Therapy 312


23.6 Summary 319


References 319


24 Anesthetic Records 323
Thomas Riebold


24.1 Introduction 323


24.2 Maintaining Anesthetic Records 323


24.3 Monitoring Recommendations 323


24.4 Paper Anesthetic Records 324


24.5 Electronic Anesthetic Records 324


24.6 Transitioning from Paper to Electronic Medical Records 327


24.7 Specific Types of Anesthetic Monitoring Software 328


24.8 Patient Management and Digital Records 330


24.9 Automated Dispensing Systems and Record Keeping 333


References 333


25 Equipment for the Magnetic Resonance Imaging System 335
Kris Kruse?Elliott


25.1 Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 335


25.2 Regulations 337


25.3 MRI Hazard Classification 337


25.4 Types of Metal 338


25.5 Gauss Lines and Safety Zones 338


25.6 Specific Hazards 339


25.7 Compatible MRI Equipment 340


25.8 Anesthetic Machines 340


25.9 Vaporizers 341


25.10 Ventilators 342


25.11 Laryngoscopes 342


25.12 Endotracheal Tubes and Airway Devices 342


25.13 Monitors 342


25.14 Miscellaneous Items 345


25.15 Summary 346


References 346


26 Equipment for Environmental Extremes and Field Techniques 349
David Brunson and Kristen G. Cooley


26.1 Environmental Extremes 349


26.2 Temperature 349


26.3 Atmospheric Pressure 351


26.4 Drug Delivery Systems 352


26.5 Monitoring Equipment 356


26.6 Field Techniques 358


26.7 Anesthesia for Situations with Limited Means 358


26.8 Stress 362


26.9 Summary 363


References 363


27 Equipment Checkout and Maintenance 365
Molly Allen and Lesley Smith


27.1 Introduction 365


27.2 Daily Checks 365


27.3 Other Equipment 373


27.4 End of Case 373


27.5 Preventative Maintenance 374


References 374


28 Equipment Cleaning and Sterilization 377
Cristina de Miguel Garcia and Kristen G. Cooley


28.1 Introduction 377


28.2 The Decontamination Process 378


28.3 Recommendations for Cleaning and Disinfecting Specific Items 384


References 388


29 Unique Species Considerations: Dogs and Cats 391
Turi Aarnes


29.1 Introduction 391


29.2 Intubation 391


29.3 Breathing System 392


29.4 Monitoring 392


29.3 Recovery 393


29.6 Anesthetic Risk 393


References 394


30 Unique Species Considerations: Ruminants and Swine 395
Denise Radkey, Lindsey Snyder, and Rebecca A. Johnson


Part I: Ruminants 395


30.1 Introduction 395


30.2 Handling and Restraint 395


30.3 IV Catheterization 396


30.4 Induction Equipment 397


30.5 Tracheal Insufflation and Demand Valves 403


30.6 Padding and Positioning 404


30.7 Monitoring Equipment 406


30.8 Commercial Anesthetic Machines 408


30.9 Anesthetic Circuit 408


30.10 Anesthetic Recovery 409


30.11 Summary 410


Part II: Swine 410


30.12 Introduction 410


30.13 Handling and Restraint 410


30.14 Intravenous Catheter Placement 411


30.15 Induction Equipment 412


30.16 Monitoring Equipment 414


30.17 Anesthetic Circuit 415


30.18 Anesthetic Recovery 416


30.19 Summary 416


References 416


31 Unique Species Considerations: Equine 419
Carolyn Kerr


31.1 Introduction 419


31.2 Sedation and Pre?Anesthetic Period Considerations 419


31.3 General Anesthesia 426


31.4 Recovery Period 437


31.5 Medical Records 437


References 438


32 Unique Species Considerations: Avian 441
Carrie Schroeder


32.1 Introduction 441


32.2 Anesthetic Considerations 443


32.3 Venous Access 445


32.4 Anesthetic Monitors 446


32.5 Anesthetic Circuits 447


32.6 Maintenance of Body Temperature 448


32.7 Anesthetic Recovery 448


References 449


33 Unique Species Considerations: Rabbits 451
Katrina Lafferty


33.1 Introduction 451


33.2 Intubation 451


33.3 Breathing Circuits 454


33.4 Monitors 454


33.5 Thermal Support 458


33.6 Summary 458


References 458


34 Unique Species Considerations: Rodents 461
Mario Arenillas Baquero and Rebecca A. Johnson


34.1 Introduction 461


34.2 Anesthetic Machines 461


34.3 Anesthetic Induction Chambers 462


34.4 Masks 464


34.5 Endotracheal Intubation and Intubation Devices 466


34.6 Ventilators 469


34.7 Monitoring Equipment 469


34.8 Warming Devices 473


34.9 Summary 474


References 474


35 Unique Species Considerations: Fish and Amphibians 477
Kurt Sladky


35.1 Introduction 477


35.2 Fish and Amphibian Anesthesia: Induction and Maintenance 477


35.3 Anesthetic Monitoring 483


References 486


36 Unique Species Considerations: Reptiles 489
Christoph Mans


36.1 Introduction 489


36.2 Anesthetic Induction 489


36.3 Airway Intubation 489


36.4 Anesthetic Monitoring 491


36.5 Summary 495


References 495


37 Unique Species Considerations: Non?Human Primates 497
Stephen Cital


37.1 General Anatomy 497


37.2 Taxonomy 497


37.3 Immobilizing Equipment 497


37.4 Anesthetic Machines 497


37.5 Monitors 498


37.6 Summary 501


References 502


Index 503
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Review quote

"Veterinary Anesthetic and Monitoring Equipment is a very nice compilation of anesthetic equipment-related topics. The text is very easy to read and contains good explanations of concepts....complemented with good-quality photographs and diagrams accompanied by explanations.... I recommend this book for anyone who is learning about veterinary anesthesia or intends to perform anesthesia." JAVMA, MAR 15, 2019, VOL 254, NO. 6
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About Kristen G. Cooley

The Editors

Kristen G. Cooley, BA, CVT, VTS (Anesthesia/Analgesia), is an Instructional Specialist in the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Rebecca A. Johnson, DVM, PhD, DACVAA, is a Clinical Associate Professor of Anesthesia and Pain Management in the Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
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