Upscaling and Downscaling Methods for Environmental Research

Upscaling and Downscaling Methods for Environmental Research

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Environmental studies typically involve the combination of dynamic models with data sources at various spatial and temporal scales. Also, the scale of the model output is rarely in tune with the scale at which decision-makers require answers or implement environmental measures. Consequently, the question has been raised how to obtain results at the appropriate scale. Models, usually developed at the scale of a research project, have to be applied to larger areas (extrapolation), with incomplete data coverage (interpolation) and to different supports (upscaling and downscaling) to facilitate studies for decision-makers. This book gives an overview of the various problems involved, and focuses on a description of upscaling and downscaling methods that are known to exist. Furthermore, this book is the first in its kind in that it contains a decision support system that advises the practitioner on which upscaling or downscaling method to use in his specific context. This book is meant for an audience of MSc- and PhD-students, applied researchers and practitioners in soil science, hydrology, (agro) ecology, agronomy and the environmental sciences in general.
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Product details

  • Hardback | 204 pages
  • 152.4 x 236.2 x 17.8mm | 408.24g
  • Dordrecht, Netherlands
  • English
  • 2000 ed.
  • 204 p.
  • 0792363396
  • 9780792363392

Table of contents

Preface. 1: Introduction. 1.1. The problem of scale transfer. 1.2. Aims and scope. 1.3. Definitions. 1.4. Contents of this book. 2: Upscaling. 2.1. A classification of upscaling methods. 2.2. Averaging of observations or output variables. 2.3. Finding representative parameters or input variables. 2.4. Averaging of model equations. 2.5. Model simplification. 3: Downscaling. 3.1. A classification of downscaling methods. 3.2. Empirical functions. 3.3. Mechanistic models. 3.4. Fine scale auxiliary information. 4: A simple DSS for upscaling and downscaling. 4.1. Purpose and philosophy of the DSS. 4.2. Functionality and options at startup. 4.3. Definition of the research chain over the scales. 4.4. Enter the DSS from the research chain. 4.5. DSS upscaling and downscaling. Appendix: Random Variables and Stochastic Functions. Glossary. References. Index.
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Review quote

`...the book is unique in that it gives a comprehensive overview about existing "model-oriented" scaling methods and guidance as to when they should be applied. [...] The book is easily readable with many supporting illustrations, has an adequate bibliography and only a restricted amount of formulae. The book can be recommended as a reference for graduate students, applied researchers and practitioners in soil sciences, hydrology, ecology, agronomy and the environmental sciences in general.'
Hydrological Sciences Journal, 46:3
`This is a good, even prophetic, book with a very broad scope, well written and comprehensively illustrated and documented. It is both a good read and an invaluable repository of information. I shall treasure it.'
European Journal of Soil Science, 53
`...this monograph is an excellent contribution especially to the field of upscaling. It should be very useful for researchers working in the areas of soil science, hydrology, and groundwater hydrology. The DSS gives a valuable aid to decide how to properly handle observations or model outputs.'
Mathematical Geology, 34:3 (2002)
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