Upgrading and Repairing PCs
"...a comprehensive resource for PC enthusiasts and professionals alike. Packed with the latest speeds and feeds, you'll want to keep this book on-hand as an authoritative technology reference."-Chris Angelini, Managing Editor, Tom's Hardware For 20 years, Upgrading and Repairing PCs has been the world's #1 guide to PC hardware: the single source for reliable information on troubleshooting and fixing problems, adding hardware, optimizing performance, and building new PCs. Now, better than ever, this 20th Edition offers beefed-up coverage of the newest hardware innovations and maintenance techniques, plus more than 90 minutes of new DVD video. Scott Mueller delivers practical answers about PC processors, motherboards, buses, BIOSes, memory, storage, video, audio, I/O, input devices, networks, Internet connectivity, power, and much more. You'll find the industry's best coverage of diagnostics, testing, and repair-plus cutting-edge discussions of improving performance via overclocking and other techniques. Mueller has taught thousands of professionals in person and millions more through his books and videos-nobody knows more about keeping PCs running perfectly. Whether you're a professional technician, a small business owner trying to save money, or a home PC enthusiast, this is the only PC hardware book you need! NEW IN THIS EDITIONThe newest processors, including Intel's 2nd generation Core i3, i5, i7 plus the Atom, and AMD's new VISION series CPUs 3TB (and larger) disks, 4K sectoring, partition alignment, faster SATA disk interfaces, and SSD (Solid State Drive) hard drive replacements New firmware innovations, from full UEFI BIOS support to built-in motherboard flash BIOS upgrade utilities Integrated video and audio, including 5.1/7.1 surround sound, HDMI, and DisplayPort connections Updated PCI Express and Power Supply specifications for powering high-end video cards Emerging interfaces such as USB 3.0 and Thunderbolt Updated coverage of building PCs from scratch-from choosing and assembling hardware through BIOS setup and troubleshooting ON THE DVDGet more than 90 minutes of up-to-the minute, studio quality how-to videos-all playable on your DVD player or computer! In this edition, Scott Mueller offers true insider information about several of the key components in a PC, including hard disk drives, power supplies, motherboards, and more. You will see hard drives completely dissected-even see an open hard drive in operation-so you can observe exactly what happens under the covers. One of the most common causes of failure in modern motherboards, power supplies, and many other PC components are bad capacitors-otherwise known as the capacitor plague. Mueller will show several real-world examples of this "disease," so you can easily identify and perhaps even repair the problem. Finally, because external hard drives are now commonly used for supplementary storage and backups, you'll find a complete discussion of several alternatives on the market. This includes tips and tricks for building or assembling your own flexible, high performance and highly reliable external storage drives, with several examples shown. This DVD also contains the complete 19th edition of this book in printable form, plus extensive technical reference material, a comprehensive glossary, and more!
- Mixed media product | 1104 pages
- 177.8 x 233.68 x 66.04mm | 1,927.76g
- 15 Sep 2011
- Pearson Education (US)
- Que Corporation,U.S.
- Indianapolis, IN, United States
- 20th edition
About Scott Mueller
Scott Mueller is the president of Mueller Technical Research (MTR), an international research and corporate training firm. Since 1982, MTR has produced the industry's most in-depth, accurate, and effective seminars, books, articles, videos, and FAQs covering PC hardware and data recovery. MTR maintains a client list that includes Fortune 500 companies, the U.S. and foreign governments, major software and hardware corporations, as well as PC enthusiasts and entrepreneurs. Scott's seminars have been presented to several thousands of PC support professionals throughout the world. Scott personally teaches seminars nationwide covering all aspects of PC hardware (including troubleshooting, maintenance, repair, and upgrade), A+ Certification, and data recovery/forensics. He has a knack for making technical topics not only understandable, but entertaining; his classes are never boring! If you have 10 or more people to train, Scott can design and present a custom seminar for your organization. Although he has taught classes virtually nonstop since 1982, Scott is best known as the author of the longest-running, most popular, and most comprehensive PC hardware book in the world, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, which has become the core of an entire series of books, including Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Upgrading and Repairing Laptops, and Upgrading and Repairing Windows. Scott's premiere work, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, has sold well over two million copies, making it by far the most popular and longest-running PC hardware book on the market today. Scott has been featured in Forbes magazine and has written several articles for PC World magazine, Maximum PC magazine, the Scott Mueller Forum, various computer and automotive newsletters, and the Upgrading and Repairing PCs website.
Table of contents
Introduction 1Book Objectives 1The 20th Edition DVD-ROM 2My Website: informit.com/upgrading 2A Personal Note 21 Development of the PC 5Computer History: Before Personal Computers 5 Timeline 5 Electronic Computers 10Modern Computers 11 From Tubes to Transistors 11 Integrated Circuits 13History of the PC 13 Birth of the Personal Computer 13 The IBM Personal Computer 15 The PC Industry 30 Years Later 162 PC Components, Features, and System Design 19What Is a PC? 19 Who Controls PC Software? 20 Who Controls PC Hardware? 23 White-Box Systems 25 PC Design Guides 26System Types 27System Components 283 Processor Types and Specifications 31Microprocessor History 31 The First Microprocessor 31 PC Processor Evolution 34 16-Bit to 64-Bit Architecture Evolution 36Processor Specifications 37 Data I/O Bus 42 Address Bus 43 Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus) 44 Processor Modes 45 Processor Benchmarks 49 Comparing Processor Performance 49 Cache Memory 54Processor Features 60 System Management Mode (SMM) 60 Superscalar Execution 61 MMX Technology 62 Dynamic Execution 64 Dual Independent Bus Architecture 65 HT Technology 66 Multicore Technology 67Processor Manufacturing 68 Processor Re-Marking 72 PGA Chip Packaging 72 Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging 73Processor Socket and Slot Types 74 Socket 478 76 Socket LGA775 77 Socket LGA1156 78 Socket LGA1366 79 Socket LGA1155 80 Socket 939 and 940 80 Socket AM2/AM2+/AM3/AM3+ 81 Socket F (1207FX) 83CPU Operating Voltages 83Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units) 83Processor Bugs and Steppings 84Processor Code Names 85P1 (086) Processors 85P2 (286) Processors 86P3 (386) Processors 87P4 (486) Processors 88P5 (586) Processors 90A MD-K5 92Intel P6 (686) Processors 92 Pentium Pro Processors 93 Pentium II Processors 93 Pentium III 95 Celeron 97Intel Pentium 4 Processors 97 Pentium 4 Extreme Edition 100 Intel Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition 102Intel Core Processors 104 Intel Core 2 Family 104 Intel (Nehalem) Core i Processors 106AMD K6 Processors 110 NexGen Nx586 110 AMD-K6 Series 110AMD K7 Processors 111 AMD Athlon 111 AMD Duron 113 AMD Athlon XP 113 Athlon MP 114AMD K8 Processors 115 AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX 115 AMD Sempron 118 AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX 119AMD K10 Processors (Phenom, Phenom II, Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron) 120AMD Fusion Processors 122Processor Upgrades 122Overclocking 124 Quartz Crystals 124 Modern PC Clocks 126 Overclocking Tips 128 Unlocking Cores 129 Bus Speeds and Multipliers 130Processor Cooling 132 Heatsinks 133 Liquid Cooling 138 Thermally Advantaged Chassis 138Processor Troubleshooting Techniques 1414 Motherboards and Buses 143Motherboard Form Factors 143 Obsolete Form Factors 144 ATX and Other Modern Form Factors 155Processor Sockets/Slots 167Chipsets 169 Chipset Evolution 169 Intel Chipsets 171 Intel Chipset Model Numbers 172 Intel Integrated Graphics Architecture 173 AMD Integrated Graphics Architecture 173 Traditional North/South Bridge Architecture 174 Hub Architecture 175 Third-Party North-South Bridge Connections 177 HyperTransport 178Intel's Early 386/486 Chipsets 178Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets 179Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) Chipsets 181Seventh/Eighth-Generation (Pentium 4/D, Core 2, and Core i) Chipsets 185 Intel 915 Family 192 Intel 925X Family 193 Intel 945 Express Family 193 Intel 955X and 975X Family 194 Intel 96x Series 194 Intel 3x and 4x Series Chipsets 195 Intel 5x Series Chipsets 198 Intel 6x Series Chipsets 201Third-Party Chipsets for Intel Processors 203 SiS Chipsets 203 ULi Electronics Chipsets 203 ATI Chipsets 203 VIA Chipsets 204 NVIDIA Chipsets for Intel Processors 204Chipsets for AMD Processors 204AMD Athlon Chipsets 205AMD Athlon 64 Chipsets 206 AMD 8000 (8151) Chipset 206 AMD (Formerly ATI) Chipsets for Athlon 64, Sempron, Phenom 207 Third-Party Chipsets for AMD Processors 213 VIA Chipsets 213 SiS Chipsets 213 NVIDIA Chipsets 213Super I/O Chips 214Motherboard Connectors 214System Bus Types, Functions, and Features 223 The Processor Bus (FSB) 229 Types of I/O Buses 229 The ISA Bus 230 The Micro Channel Bus 230 The EISA Bus 230 Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express, AGP) 231System Resources 238 Interrupts 238 DMA Channels 243 I/O Port Addresses 243Resolving Resource Conflicts 246 PnP 247Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For) 249 Chipset Documentation 2505 BIOS 251BIOS Basics 251Motherboard ROM BIOS 255 ROM Hardware 256 ROM Shadowing 257 ROM Chip Types 258 ROM BIOS Manufacturers 262 BIOS Hardware/Software 264Upgrading the BIOS 265 Where to Get Your BIOS Update 266 Determining Your BIOS Version 266 Checking the BIOS Date 266 Backing Up Your BIOS 267 Backing Up Your BIOS Setup (CMOS RAM) Settings 267 Upgrading a Flash BIOS 268 Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses 276 Year 2000 BIOS Issues 278Preboot Environment 278Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) 280 UEFI and BIOS Limitations 280 UEFI Support 282CMOS Setup 282 Running or Accessing the CMOS Setup Program 282 BIOS Setup Menus 283 Maintenance Menu 283 Main Menu 285 Advanced Menus 286 Security Menu 300 Power Menu 301 Boot Menu (Boot Sequence, Order) 303 Exit Menu 305 Additional BIOS Setup Features 305PnP BIOS 306 PnP Device IDs 307 ACPI 307BIOS/MBR Error Messages 308 BIOS Boot Error Messages 309 MBR Boot Error Messages 3126 Memory 315Memory Basics 315 ROM 317 DRAM 317 Cache Memory: SRAM 319Memory Standards 321Speed and Performance 322 Fast Page Mode DRAM 324 Extended Data Out RAM 325 SDRAM 326 DDR SDRAM 328 DDR2 SDRAM 330 DDR3 SDRAM 332 RDRAM 333Memory Modules 333 Registered Modules 338 SIMM Details 340 SDR DIMM Details 340 DDR DIMM Details 340 DDR2 DIMM Details 341 DDR3 DIMM Details 341Determining a Memory Module's Size and Features 341Memory Banks 343Memory Module Speed 344Parity and ECC 345 Parity Checking 347 How Parity Checking Works 347 ECC 350RAM Upgrades 350 Upgrade Options and Strategies 351 Purchasing Memory 353 Replacing Modules with Higher-Capacity Versions 355 Installing Memory Modules 355Troubleshooting Memory 358Memory Defect Isolation Procedures 361The System Logical Memory Layout 3637 The ATA/IDE Interface 367An Overview of the IDE Interface 367 Precursors to IDE 367 IDE Origins 368 Origins of ATA 369ATA Standards 370 ATA-1 (ATA Interface for Disk Drives) 372 ATA-2 (ATA Interface with Extensions-2) 372 ATA-3 (ATA Interface-3) 373 ATA/ATAPI-4 (ATA with Packet Interface Extension-4) 373 ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA with Packet Interface-5) 374 ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA with Packet Interface-6) 375 ATA/ATAPI-7 (ATA with Packet Interface-7) 376 ATA/ATAPI-8 376PATA 377 PATA I/O Connector 377 PATA I/O Cable 380 Longer or Rounded Cables 382 PATA Signals 382 PATA Dual-Drive Configurations 383 PATA PIO Transfer Modes 385 PATA DMA Transfer Modes 386SATA 387 SATA Cables and Connectors 389 SATA Configuration 391 Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) 392 SATA Transfer Modes 393ATA Features 394 ATA Commands 394 ATA Security Mode 395 Host Protected Area 396 ATAPI 397ATA Drive Capacity Limitations 397 Prefixes for Decimal and Binary Multiples 398 BIOS Limitations 399 CHS Versus LBA 400CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS Conversions 401BIOS Commands Versus ATA Commands 402 CHS Limitations (the 528MB Barrier) 403 CHS Translation (Breaking the 528MB Barrier) 404 The 2.1GB and 4.2GB Barriers 406 LBA-Assist Translation 408 The 8.4GB Barrier 411 The 137GB Barrier and Beyond 412 Operating System and Other Software Limitations 413GPT and the 2.2TB Barrier 415PATA/SATA RAID 4178 Magnetic Storage Principles 421Magnetic Storage 421History of Magnetic Storage 421How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data 422Read/Write Head Designs 425 Ferrite 426 Metal-In-Gap 426 Thin-Film 427 Magneto-Resistive Heads 427 Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads 429Head Sliders 430Data-Encoding Schemes 432 Frequency Modulation Encoding 434 Modified FM Encoding 434 Run Length Limited Encoding 434 Encoding Scheme Comparisons 436 Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders 437Capacity Measurements 437Areal Density 438PMR 4419 Hard Disk Storage 445Definition of a Hard Disk 445Hard Drive Advancements 446Form Factors 447 5 1/4-Inch Drive 448 3 1/2-Inch Drive 449 2 1/2-Inch Drive 449 1.8-inch Drive 449 1-Inch Drives 450HDD Operation 450 The Ultimate HDD Analogy 452 Tracks and Sectors 453 ECC 456 Disk Formatting 461Basic HDD Components 465 Hard Disk Platters (Disks) 466 Recording Media 467 Read/Write Heads 469 Head Actuator Mechanisms 470 Air Filters 477 Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation 479 Spindle Motors 479 Logic Boards 480 Cables and Connectors 481 Configuration Items 481Hard Disk Features 482 Capacity 482 Performance 484 Reliability 48810 Flash and Removable Storage 493Alternative Storage Devices 493Flash Memory Devices 493 CompactFlash 495 SmartMedia 496 MultiMediaCard 496 SecureDigital 496 Sony Memory Stick 496 ATA Flash PC Card 497 xD-Picture Card 497 SSD (Solid-State Drive) 498 Virtual SSD (RAMdisk) 498 Flash-Based SSDs 498 USB Flash Drives 501 Comparing Flash Memory Devices 502 Flash Card Readers 504 Card Readers 504 Type II PC Card Adapters 505High-Capacity Removable Magnetic Storage Devices 505Floppy Disk Drives 506 1.44MB 3 1/2-Inch Drives 507 Floppy Drive Interfaces 507 Drive Components 508 Read/Write Heads 508 The Floppy Controller 509 Power and Data Connectors 510 The Floppy Disk Controller Cable 510 How the OS Uses a Floppy Disk 512 Disk Change 513 Floppy Disk Media Types and Specifications 514 Density 514 Media Coercivity and Thickness 514 Floppy Disk Media 515Tape Drives 51611 Optical Storage 517Optical Technology 517CD-Based Optical Technology 518 CDs: A Brief History 518 CD Construction and Technology 519 Mass-Producing CDs 519 Writable CDs 531 MultiRead Specifications 538DVD 539 DVD History 540 DVD Construction and Technology 541 DVD Tracks and Sectors 542 Handling DVD Errors 546 DVD Capacity (Sides and Layers) 547 Data Encoding on the DVD Disc 550 Recordable DVD Standards 551 Multiformat Rewritable DVD Drives 558BD 559HD-DVD 561Optical Disc Formats 562 CD Formats 562 DVD Formats and Standards 570 Optical Disc File Systems 573Ripping/Copying Discs 579 "For Music Use Only" CD-R/RW Discs 580 CD Copy Protection 580 CD Digital Rights Management 581 DVD Copy Protection 581Optical Drive Performance Specifications 584 CD Data Transfer Rate 585 CD Drive Speed 585 DVD Drive Speed 588 Access Time 590 Buffer/Cache 590 Direct Memory Access and Ultra-DMA 590 Interface 590 Loading Mechanism 591 Other Drive Features 592How to Reliably Record Optical Discs 592 Booting from a Floppy Disk with Optical Drive Support 593 Bootable Optical Discs-El Torito 594 LightScribe and LabelFlash 594Troubleshooting Optical Drives 595 Caring for Optical Media 598 Updating the Firmware in an Optical Drive 59912 Video Hardware 603Display Adapters and Monitors 603Video Display Adapters 604 Video Adapter Types 604 Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets 605 CPUs with Integrated Video 609 Video Adapter Components 609 Identifying the Video and System Chipsets 611 Video RAM 612 The DAC 615Video Display Interfaces 616 The System Interface 616 The Display Interface 618 TV Display Interfaces 6323D Graphics Accelerators 633 How 3D Accelerators Work 633 APIs 636 Dual-GPU Scene Rendering 637Monitors 639 Display Specifications 639 LCD Technology 650 LED Backlit Technology 652 CRT Display Technology 652 Plasma Display Technology 654 LCD and DLP Projectors 654Using Multiple Monitors 656 Dualview 656 Homogeneous Adapters 657 Heterogeneous Adapters 657Video Troubleshooting and Maintenance 657 Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers 658 Video Drivers 660 Maintaining Monitors 660 Testing Monitors 661 Adjusting Monitors 662 Bad Pixels 663 Troubleshooting Monitors 664 Repairing Monitors 66513 Audio Hardware 667Audio Hardware Concepts and Terms 668 The Nature of Sound 668 Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Hardware 668 Sampling 669Early PC Sound Cards 670 Limitations of Sound Blaster Pro Compatibility 670 Microsoft Windows and Audio Support 670 DirectX and Audio Support Hardware 671 Core Audio APIs for Windows Vista and Windows 7 671 3D Gaming Audio Standards 672 Legacy Audio Support Through Virtualization 673Audio Hardware Features 674 Basic Connectors 674 Advanced Audio Features 676 Volume Control 678 MIDI Support Features 678 Data Compression 679 Sound Drivers 680 Sound Cards for Sound Producers 680Motherboard Chipsets with Integrated Audio 681 AC'97 Integrated Audio 682 Intel "Azalia" HD Audio 682Troubleshooting PC Audio Problems 682 Sound Card and Onboard Audio Problems 682Speakers 685 Speaker Selection Criteria 686 Theater and Surround Sound Considerations 687Microphones 68814 External I/O Interfaces 691Introduction to Input/Output Ports 691 Serial Versus Parallel 691 Universal Serial Bus (USB) 692 IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i.LINK) 707 Comparing USB and IEEE 1394 (FireWire) 711 Hot-Plugging (and Unplugging) 714Thunderbolt Technology 717Low-Speed External Connections 719 Serial Ports 719 Parallel Ports 72315 Input Devices 729Keyboards 729 Enhanced 101-Key Keyboard 729 104-Key (Windows) Keyboard 731Keyboard Technology 732 Keyswitch Design 732 The Keyboard Interface 737 Typematic Functions 739 Keyboard Key Numbers and Scan Codes 740 International Keyboard Layouts 741 Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors 742 USB Keyboards 743 Keyboards with Special Features 744Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair 745 Keyboard Disassembly 746 Cleaning a Keyboard 746Keyboard Recommendations 747Pointing Devices 748 Ball-Type Mice 749 Optical Mice 749 Pointing Device Interface Types 751 Mouse Troubleshooting 754 Scroll Wheels 755 TrackPoint II/III/IV 755 Alternative Pointing Devices 758Wireless Input Devices 761 Power Management Features of Wireless Input Devices 762 Troubleshooting Wireless Input Devices 76316 Internet Connectivity 765Internet Connectivity Trends 765Broadband Internet Access Types 765 Cable TV 766 Digital Subscriber Line 769 Wireless Broadband 773 Cellular Broadband 3G and 4G Services 773 Satellite Broadband 774 ISDN 777 Leased Lines 778 Comparing High-Speed Internet Access 779Dial-Up Modems 780 56Kbps Modems 781Internet Connection Security 784 Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions 786 Sharing Your Internet Connection 786 Routers for Internet Sharing 787 Modem/Router Status LEDs 78817 Local Area Networking 789Defining a Network 789 Types of Networks 790 Requirements for a Network 790Client/Server Versus Peer Networks 791 Client/Server Networks 791 Peer-to-Peer Networks 792 Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks 793Network Architecture Overview 794 Wired Ethernet 795 Wireless Ethernet 797 Bluetooth 802Hardware Elements of Your Network 802 NICs for Wired Ethernet Networks 802 Network Cables for Wired Ethernet 804 Wired Network Topologies 813 Switches for Ethernet Networks 816 Wireless Ethernet Hardware 819Network Protocols 825 IP and TCP/IP 825 IPX 826 NetBEUI 826Other Home Networking Solutions 827 HomePNA 827 Power Line Networking 828Putting Your Network Together 829 Network Adapters 829 Cables and Connections Between Computers 830 Switch/Access Point 83118 Power Supplies 833The Power Supply 833Primary Function and Operation 833 Voltage Rails 834 The Power Good Signal 836Power Supply Form Factors 837 Modern Form Factors 840Power Switches 854 ATX and Newer 854 PC/XT/AT and LPX Power Switches 855Motherboard Power Connectors 857 AT/LPX Power Supply Connectors 857 ATX and ATX12V Motherboard Power Connectors 859 Backward and Forward Compatibility 871 Dell Proprietary (Nonstandard) ATX Design 873Additional Power Connectors 875 Peripheral Power Connectors 875 Floppy Power Connectors 876 Serial ATA Power Connectors 877 PCI Express Auxiliary Graphics Power Connectors 878Power Supply Specifications 881 Power Supply Loading 881 Power Supply Ratings 883 Other Power Supply Specifications 884 Power Factor Correction 886 SLI-Ready and CrossfireX Certifications 888 Safety Certifications 888Power-Use Calculations 889Power Savings 891 80 Plus 891 ENERGY STAR 892 Advanced Power Management 892 Advanced Configuration and Power Interface 893Power Cycling 896Power Supply Troubleshooting 899 Overloaded Power Supplies 900 Inadequate Cooling 901 Using Digital Multimeters 901 Specialized Test Equipment 904Power Supply Recommendations 906 Modular Cables 907 Sources for Replacement Power Supplies 907Power-Protection Systems 908 Surge Suppressors (Protectors) 909 Network and Phone Line Surge Protectors 910 Line Conditioners 910 Backup Power 910Real-Time Clock/Nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries 913 Modern CMOS Batteries 914 Obsolete or Unique CMOS Batteries 915 CMOS Battery Troubleshooting 91619 Building or Upgrading Systems 917System Components 917 Case and Power Supply 919 Processor 920 Motherboard 921 Memory 923 Hard Disk/Solid-State Drives 925 Removable Storage 925 Input Devices 925 Video Card and Display 926 Audio Hardware 926 Accessories 927Hardware and Software Resources 928System Assembly and Disassembly 928 Assembly Preparation 929 Installing the CPU and Heatsink 932 Installing Memory Modules 937 Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case 938 Preparing a Modular Power Supply 942 Connecting the Power Supply 944 Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard 946 Installing the Drives 948 Installing a Video Card 952 Installing Additional Expansion Cards 954 Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables 954System Startup 954Installing the OS 956Troubleshooting New Installations 95720 PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance 959PC Diagnostics 959Diagnostics Software 959 The POST 960 Peripheral Diagnostics 972 Operating System Diagnostics 973 Commercial Diagnostics Software 974 Free/User Supported Diagnostics 974The Boot Process 975 The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent 975 The DOS Boot Process 979 The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process 980 Windows 2000/XP Startup 980 Windows Vista/7 Startup 981PC Maintenance Tools 982 Hand Tools 982 Safety 986 Test Equipment 987 Special Tools for the Enthusiast 992Preventive Maintenance 993 Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures 994 Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures 999Troubleshooting Tips and Techniques 1003 Repair or Replace? 1003 Troubleshooting by Replacing Parts 1004 Troubleshooting by the Bootstrap Approach 1004 Problems During the POST 1006 Problems Running Software 1006 Problems with Adapter Cards 1007 Top Troubleshooting Problems 1007Index 1019