Upgrading and Repairing Networks
Even if you aren't a networking professional, Upgrading and Repairing Networks explains those tough networking concepts in a way that won't make you reach for a bottle of aspirin, starting with the fundamentals and working through more advanced concepts. Now in its fourth edition, this industry classic networking reference gives you real world, in-depth explanations of confusing networking architectures and protocols, and helps you track down and repair networking problems that are costing you and/or your company money - right now. Don't be the only networking professional caught in a network meltdown without a copy of this trusty tome at your side.
- Paperback | 1248 pages
- 198.1 x 239.3 x 55.1mm | 1,991.29g
- 21 Aug 2003
- Pearson Education (US)
- Que Corporation,U.S.
- United States
- 4th edition
Table of contents
Introduction. Who Should Use This Book? What Will You Find Inside? What's New in This Edition. What's Missing from This Edition? I. UP FRONT: NETWORK PLANNING AND DESIGN CONCEPTS. 1. A Short History of Computer Networking. 2. Overview of Network Topologies. LAN Topologies. Bus Topology. Star Topology. Ring Topology. Mesh Topology. Hybrid Topologies. Shared and Nonshared Network Media Topologies. Bridged Versus Routed Topologies. Building and Campus Topologies. Connecting Network Segments Within a Building: The Backbone. Design Considerations in a Campus LAN Environment. Scalability. Redundancy. Fault Tolerance. A Multi-Tiered Network Topology. Scalability. Redundancy. Fault Tolerance. 3. Network Design Strategies. Planning a Logical Network Design. Who Are Your Clients? What Kinds of Services or Applications Will the Network Offer? What Degree of Reliability Do I Require for Each Network Link? Choosing a LAN Protocol. Planning and Design Components. Document Everything. Test, Test, and Then Test Some More. Creating Policies and Procedures for Network Usage. Providing Training for Technical Personnel. You Can't Forget the Budget (or Can You?). The Physical Network. Planning Resources. 4. Upgrading Strategies and Project Management. Where Do You Start? Determining When an Upgrade Is Necessary-The Evaluation Process. Determining User Requirements and Expectations. Maintaining Support for Legacy Applications. What Resources Are Needed for the Upgrade? Planning an Upgrade. Documenting the Plan. Evaluating the Plan As It Applies to Corporate Policies and Procedures. Setting Goals. Scheduling Downtime. Milestones and Criteria. Back-Out Procedures. Testing the Plan. Evaluating Competing Products. The Pilot Project. Deployment. Team Personnel. Keeping Users Informed. Tracking Progress. User Training. Closing the Book-Documenting What Has Changed and Why. Other Considerations for Upgrading. 5. Protecting the Network: Preventative Maintenance Techniques. Power Conditioning and Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPSs). Power Is Money. Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) and Standalone UPS Systems. Network Devices. Network Monitoring. Server and Workstation Backups. Backup Media-Tape, Optical Storage, and CD-R. Backup Rotation Schedules. Off-Site Storage. Routine Maintenance. Building Redundancy into the Network. Recovery Planning. Justifying Preventative Maintenance. II. PHYSICAL NETWORKING COMPONENTS. 6. Wiring the Network-Cables, Connectors, Concentrators, and Other Network Components. Structured Wiring. The Work Area. The Backbone Cabling System Structure. The Horizontal Cabling System Structure. The Telecommunications Closet. Important Definitions. Physical Cable Types. Twisted-Pair Cabling. Coaxial Cables. Fiber-Optic Cables. Terminations and Connections. Crimping. Insulation Displacement Contact. Modular Jacks and Plugs. Modular Plug Pair Configurations. Common Outlet Configurations. Patch Panels. Terminating Fiber. Fiber-Optic Splicing. Fiber-Optic Patch Panels. General Considerations for Fiber-Optic Cabling. Small Form Factor Connectors (SFF). Telecommunications Rooms. Open Office Cabling. Consolidation Points. General Horizontal Cabling Subsystem Specifications. Documenting and the Administration of the Installation. Records. Drawings. Work Orders. Reports. 7. Network Interface Cards. Choosing a Hardware Bus Type. ISA. PCI. PCMCIA. CardBus. Different Cards, Different Speeds. Network Cable Connectors and Terminators. The Wired for Management (WfM) Initiative and Wake on LAN (WOL) Technology. Universal Network Boot. Asset Management. Power Management. Remote Wake-Up. Should You Use WOL-Compliant Network Cards? Multi-Homed Systems. Load Balancing and Dual-Redundant Network Controllers. Software Drivers. Packet Drivers. The Open Data-Link Interface (ODI). The Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS). IRQs and I/O Ports. IRQs. Base I/O Ports. Troubleshooting Network Cards. Checking the NIC Configuration on Linux. Checking the LEDs-Activity and Link Lights. Running the Adapter's Diagnostic Program. Configuration Conflicts. Checking the Computer's Network Configuration. Preventative Steps to Take. 8. Network Switches. How Switches Work. Segmenting the Collision Domain. Full-Duplex Ethernet Switches. Using Switches to Create a Collapsed Backbone. Switch Hardware Types. Cut-Through Switches. Store-and-Forward Switches. Layer 3 Switches. Putting a Switch in Your Home Office. Stackable and Chassis Switches. Switch Troubleshooting and Management. 9. Virtual LANs. Virtual LANs and Network Topologies. Switching Based on Network Frames. Port-Based VLANs. Implicit and Explicit Tagging. Implicit Tagging. Explicit Tagging. MAC Address VLANs. Protocol Rule-Based VLANs. Using Explicit Tagging on the Network Backbone. Switch Standards-The IEEE Standards. What Kind of Switch Should You Buy? 10 Routers. What Routers Do. Hierarchical Network Organization. Providing Security. The Difference Between Routable Protocols and Routing Protocols. When Do You Need to Use a Router? Growing LAN Sizes. Delegating Responsibility for Local Area Networks. Connecting Branch Offices. Using a Router to Protect Your Network-NAT and Packet Filtering. Router Ports and Connections. Configuring Routers. Routers Come in All Sizes. Using Routers over Wide Area Networks (WANs). Routers Make the Internet Possible. 11. Network Attached Storage and Storage Area Networks. Local Versus Networked Storage Devices. Defining Network Attached Storage (NAS). Defining a Storage Area Network (SAN). Network Attached Storage. Network Appliances. NAS Protocols. NAS Capacity Limitations-Bandwidth and Storage. Storage Area Networks. SAN and NAS-Mix and Match. Using Fibre Channel as a Network Transport. Encoding Data on Fibre Channel Networks. Basic SANs: Arbitrated Loops. Initializing the Loop. Arbitrating for Loop Access. Using a Fabric Switched Topology for SANs. A Mixed Topology of Loops and Switches. IP SANs and the Future. What Kind of NAS or SAN Solution Should You Use? III. LOW-LEVEL NETWORK PROTOCOLS. 12. The IEEE LAN/MAN Committee Networking Standards. What Is the LAN/MAN Committee? IEEE 802: Overview and Architecture. IEEE 802.1: Bridging and Management. IEEE 802.2: Logical Link Control. IEEE 802.3: CSMA/CD Access Method. IEEE 802.4: Token-Passing Bus Access Method and IEEE 802.5: Token-Ring Access Method. IEEE 802.7: Recommended Practices for Broadband Local Area Networks. IEEE 802.10: Security. IEEE 802.11: Wireless. Obtaining the IEEE 802 Standards Documents Free. 13. The Oldest LAN Protocol Is Still Kicking: ARCnet. Overview of ARCnet. ARCnet Addressing and Message Transmission. Hubs and Network Wiring. Bus and Star Topologies. ARCnet Network Adapter Cards. Connecting ARCnet LANs to Ethernet LANs. Troubleshooting ARCnet. 14. Ethernet: The Universal Standard. A Short History of Ethernet. Variations on a Theme: How Many Kinds of Ethernet Are There? Collisions: What Are CSMA/CA and CSMA/CD? The Backoff Algorithm. Defining the Collision Domain-Buses, Hubs, and Switches. Restrictions on Legacy Ethernet Topologies. Limiting Factors of Ethernet Technologies. Interconnecting Devices and Cable Segment Length. The 5-4-3 Rule. Using a Bus Topology. Using a Star Topology. Hybrid LAN Topologies. Tree. Hierarchical Star. Using a Backbone to Connect the Enterprise. Ethernet Frames. XEROX PARC Ethernet and Ethernet II. The 802.3 Standard. The 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) Standard. Fast Ethernet (IEEE 802.3u) and Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3z). Fast Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet. 10Gigabit Ethernet (IEEE 802.3ae). Ethernet Problems. Collision Rates. Collision Types. Sampling Intervals. Reducing Collisions. Ethernet Errors. Simple Error Detection. Bad FCS and Misaligned Frames. Short Frames (Runts). Giant Frames and Jabber. Multiple Errors. Broadcast Storms. Monitoring Errors. IV. DEDICATED CONNECTIONS AND WAN PROTOCOLS. 15. Dial-Up Connections. The Point-to Point Protocol and the Serial Line Internet Protocol. The Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). Establishing a Link: The Link Control Protocol (LCP). Network Control Protocols (NCPs). An Example: Configuring a Windows XP Professional Client. When Dial-Up Isn't Fast Enough. 16. Dedicated Connections. Leased Lines. The T-Carrier System. Fractional T1. Diagnosing Problems with T-Carrier Services. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). ATM Frames. ATM Connections. The ATM Architecture Model (B-ISDN/ATM Model). LAN Emulation (LANE). ATM Service Categories. The Importance of Frame Relay and the X.25 Interface. The Frame Relay Header. Network Congestion Signaling. The Local Management Interface Signal Mechanism. Using Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs). Possible Problems Using Frame Relay. 17. Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) Technology. DSL and Cable Modems. Topological Differences Between Cable and DSL. A Quick Primer on the PSTN. xDSL. The Future of DSL. 18. Using a Cable Modem. How Cable Modems Work. Providing IP Addresses to Cable Modems. First-Generation Cable Modem Systems. How Cable Modems Differ from xDSL Broadband Access. The Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS). Which Should You Choose-Cable or DSL? V. WIRELESS NETWORKING PROTOCOLS. 19. Introduction to Wireless Networking. Why Wireless Networks Are Inevitable. Access Points and Ad Hoc Networks. Ad Hoc Networks. Using an Access Point to Mediate Wireless Communications. Physical Transmission Technologies. Frequency Hopping Versus Spread Spectrum. The IEEE 802.11 Wireless Standard. The Physical Layer. The MAC Layer. Other Services Performed at the MAC Layer. Sources of Interference for Wireless Networks. 20. IEEE 802.11b: It's Here and It's Inexpensive. Why Wi-Fi? What to Look For When Using 802.11b Networking. Distance Limitations. Firewalls. Do You Need a Wireless Network? Connecting the Wireless Network to a Wired LAN. Dual-Mode Access Points. 21. Faster Service: IEEE 802.11a. Overview of the IEEE 802.11a Standard. Interference from Consumer Devices. Increased Bandwidth in the 5.4GHz Band. Using Wireless Networking in Public Places. Security Concerns. 22. The IEEE 802.11g Standard. Overview of the 802.11g Standard. Increasing Bandwidth in the 2.4GHz Spectrum. Installing Linksys Wireless-G Broadband Router (Model Number WRT54G). Installing and Configuring a Wireless Network Adapter. Which Wireless Protocol Should You Use? 23. Bluetooth Wireless Technology. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). General Overview of Bluetooth. Piconets and Scatternets. Piconets. Scatternets. Bluetooth Device Modes. SCO and ACL Links. SCO Links. ACL Links. Bluetooth Packets. What Are Bluetooth Profiles? The Generic Access Profile. The Service Discovery Application Profile. The Cordless Telephony Profile and the Intercom Profile. The Serial Port Profile. The Headset Profile. The Dial-Up Networking Profile. Other Bluetooth Profiles. Bluetooth Is More Than a Wireless Communication Protocol. 24. Other Wireless Technologies. Instant Messaging and Consumer Devices. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). Third-Generation Mobile Phones. Wireless Security. WEP. Second-Generation WEP: Using a 128-Bit Key. Wired Protected Access (WPA) and 802.11i. How Well Do You Know Your Users? Personal Area Networks (PANs). VI. LAN AND WAN NETWORK, SERVICE, AND APPLICATION PROTOCOLS. 25. Overview of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite. TCP/IP and the OSI Reference Model. TCP/IP Is a Collection of Protocols, Services, and Applications. TCP/IP, IP, and UDP. Other Miscellaneous Protocols. The Internet Protocol (IP). IP Is a Connectionless Transport Protocol. IP Is an Unacknowledged Protocol. IP Is an Unreliable Protocol. IP Provides the Address Space for the Network. Just What Does IP Do? Examining IP Datagram Header Information. IP Addressing. The Address Resolution Protocol-Resolving IP Addresses to Hardware Addresses. Proxy ARP. RARP-The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). TCP Provides a Reliable Connection-Oriented Session. Examining TCP Header Information. TCP Sessions. TCP Session Security Issues. The User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Examining UDP Header Information. Interaction Between UDP and ICMP. Ports, Services, and Applications. Well-Known Ports. Registered Ports. The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). ICMP Message Types. 26. Basic TCP/IP Services and Applications. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP). FTP Ports and Processes. Data Transfers. FTP Protocol Commands. Server Replies to FTP Commands. Using a Windows FTP Command-Line Client. Using Red Hat Linux FTP. Using the Red Hat Linux Command-Line FTP Client. The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). The Telnet Protocol. What Is a Network Virtual Terminal and NVT ASCII? Telnet Protocol Commands and Option Negotiations. Telnet and Authentication. Using Telnet and FTP with a Firewall. The R-Utilities. How the Traditional R-Utilities Authorize Access to Your Network's Resources. The rlogin Utility. Using rsh. Using rcp. Using rwho. Using ruptime. The Finger Utility. Other Services and Applications Built on the TCP/IP Suite. Secure Network Services. 27. Internet Mail Protocols: POP3, SMTP, and IMAP. How SMTP Works. The SMTP Model. SMTP Service Extensions. SMTP Commands and Response Codes. SMTP Response Codes. Putting It All Together. The Post Office Protocol (POP3). The AUTHORIZATION State. The TRANSACTION State. The UPDATE State. The Internet Message Access Protocol Version 4 (IMAP4). Transport Protocols. Client Commands. System Flags. Retrieving the Message Header and Body of the Message. Data Formatting. The User's Inbox and Other Mailbox Naming. Universal Commands. Other IMAP Commands. Non-Authenticated Commands. Authenticated Commands. 28. Troubleshooting Tools for TCP/IP Networks. Checking the Host System's Configuration First. Using hostname and Related Commands. Using ipconfig and ifconfig to Check Host Configurations. Using ping and tracert to Check Connectivity. The ping Command. The traceroute Command. The netstat and route Commands. The arp Command. The tcpdump Utility. The WinDump Utility. Using the nslookup Command to Troubleshoot Name Resolution Issues. Other Useful Commands. 29. BOOTP and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). What Is BOOTP? Format of the BOOTP Packet. The BOOTP Request/Reply Mechanism. BOOTP Vendor-Specific Information Options. Downloading an Operating System. Taking BOOTP One Step Further: DHCP. The DHCP Packet Format and Additional Options. The DHCP Client/Server Exchange. An Example: Installing and Configuring a DHCP Server on Windows 2000/2003. Installing the DHCP Server Service on Windows 2000 or Server 2003. Authorizing the Server. Using the MMC Action Menu. Configuring the DHCP Server and Scope Options. Providing Support for BOOTP Clients. Enabling the DHCP Relay Agent. What Is a DHCP Cluster? Considerations for Using DHCP in Large or Routed Environments. How DHCP Interacts with Microsoft's Dynamic Domain Name Service (DNS). Reservations and Exclusions. What Is APIPA? Troubleshooting Microsoft DHCP. Managing Logging. Using DHCP with Red Hat Linux. The DHCP Server Daemon. The DHCP Relay Agent. 30. Network Name Resolution. Hardware Versus Protocol Addresses. NetBIOS. The LMHOSTS File. Windows Internet Name Service. Installing and Configuring WINS on Windows 2000/2003 Servers. Managing the Windows 2000 WINS Server. Managing the Windows Server 2003 WINS Service. Using netsh Commands to Manage WINS. TCP/IP Names. The HOSTS File. Domain Name System. Configuring DNS Clients. Using nslookup. Dynamic DNS. Installing DNS on a Windows 2000 or 2003 Server. Network Information Service. 31. Using the Active Directory. Early Directories. The Difference Between the Directory and the Directory Service. Interesting Objects. What Active Directory Delivers. From X.500 and DAP to the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. The Active Directory Schema. Objects and Attributes. Standard Objects in the Active Directory. What Is a Domain Tree? What Is a Forest? Domain Models-May They Rest in Peace. Partitioning the Active Directory into Domains. A Domain Is Still a Domain. Active Directory Trees and Forests. The Active Directory and Dynamic DNS. Dynamic DNS. How the Active Directory Uses DNS. Using Sites to Manage Large Enterprises. Directory Replication. Summarizing the Directory Data Using the Global Catalog. Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI). Directory-Aware Application Programming. Now It's Just Domain Controllers and Member Servers. The Active Directory Schema. Modifying the Active Directory Schema. Finding Objects in the Active Directory. Finding a User Account. Finding a Printer in the Active Directory. Using Start/Search. Windows Server 2003: New Active Directory Features. Installing the Active Directory on a Windows Server 2003 Computer. 32. Overview of Novell NetWare IPX/SPX. Using the Novell Proprietary Protocols. The NetWare Protocol Suite. Connectionless Service and Protocols. Connection-Oriented Service and Protocols. Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). IPX Packet Communications. IPX Packet Structure. IPX Frame Types. Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX). SPX Packet Communications. SPX Packet Structure. Sequenced Packet Exchange II (SPXII). NetWare Core Protocol (NCP). NCP Packet Signature Options. Server Signature Levels. Client Signature Levels. Packet Signature and Job Servers. Effective Packet Signature Levels. Troubleshooting Packet Signature Conflicts. NetWare Security Guidelines. NCP Protocol Independence. 33. Overview of the Novell Bindery and Novell Directory Services. Understanding NetWare Directory Structures. Reviewing the Bindery Structure. Reviewing the NetWare Directory Service Structure. Bindery Services. Contrasting and Comparing Bindery and NDS. Using Novell Directory Services. Using NWADMN32. Creating and Deleting Objects. Moving and Renaming Objects. Assigning Rights and Setting Permissions. Using NDS Manager. Setting Up Bindery Services. 34. Expanding and Enhancing NDS: NetWare's eDirectory. Basics of the eDirectory. The eDirectory Can Be Installed on Many Different Operating Systems. Options to Consider for Installing the eDirectory. Hardware Requirements. Installing the eDirectory for Supported Platforms. New Features the eDirectory Delivers. TLS/SSL. IMonitor. The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Extensible Match. Backup and Restore. 35. File Server Protocols. Why Should You Read This Part? Server Message Block (SMB) and the Common Internet File System (CIFS). SMB Message Types. SMB Security Provisions. Protocol Negotiation and Session Setup. Accessing Files. Using NET Commands. Monitoring and Troubleshooting SMB Communications. Using the SMB/CIFS Protocol on Non-Microsoft Clients: Samba. The Common Internet File System (CIFS). NetWare Core Protocol (NCP). General Requests and Responses. Burst Mode. Request Being Processed Response. Terminating Connections. Unix Network File System (NFS). Protocol Components: Remote Procedure Call (RPC) Protocol. External Data Representation (XDR). The NFS Protocol and Mount Protocol. Configuring NFS Servers and Clients. NFS Client Daemons. Server-Side Daemons. Troubleshooting NFS Problems. Microsoft Distributed File System (DFS): Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. Creating a DFS Root. Adding Links to the DFS Root. 36. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It All Started with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) at CERN. What Is HTTP? HTTP Mechanics. HTTP Header Fields. URLs, URIs, and URNs. 37. Routing Protocols. Basic Types of Routing Protocols. The Routing Information Protocol (RIP). OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). Multi-Protocol Label Switching. Combining Routing and Switching. Adding a Label. Using Frame Relay and ATM with MPLS. 38. The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Protocol. Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption. Digital Certificates. The SSL Handshake Procedure. Using Information in the Digital Certificate to Prevent Interception Attacks. What Are http:// and https://? Adding Another Layer to the Network Protocol Stack. Does SSL Provide Enough Security for Internet Transactions? OpenSource SSL. 39. Introduction to the IPv6 Protocol. What's the Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6? The IPv6 Headers. IPv6 Extension Headers. The Options Type Field for Hop-by-Hop and Destination Options. Other IPv6 Considerations. The Future of IPv6. VII. NETWORK USER AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. 40. Windows NT Domains. Workgroups and Domains. Interdomain Trust Relationships. Domain Controllers. Windows NT Domain Models. Windows NT User Groups. Built-In User Groups. Creating User Groups. Special User Groups. Managing User Accounts. Adding a User to a Group. User Profiles. Limiting the Time a User Can Log On. Limiting Which Workstations a User Can Log On To. Account Information. Allowing Dial-Up Access. Replication Between Domain Controllers. Passwords and Policies. Detecting Failed Logon Attempts. Strategies to Minimize Logon Problems. 41. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 User and Computer Management Utilities. The Microsoft Management Console. User Management. Creating a New User Domain in the Active Directory. Managing Other User Account Information. Using the Action Menu. Computer Management. Adding a Computer to the Domain. Managing Other Computer Account Information. Windows 2000 User Groups. Choosing a Group Based on the Group's Scope. Built-In Groups. Creating a New User Group. Other Things You Can Do with the Active Directory Computers and Users Snap-In. 42. Managing Unix and Linux Users. User Administration. The /etc/passwd File. Using a Shadow Password File. The /etc/groups File. Adding or Removing User Accounts. Using a Linux GUI Utility to Manage Users. Network Information Service (NIS). Master and Slave NIS Servers. NIS Maps. The NIS Server ypserve Daemon and Maps Location. Setting the NIS Domain Name Using the Command domainname. Starting NIS: ypinit, ypserve, and ypxfrd. NIS Slaves. Changing NIS Maps. Pushing Modifications to NIS Slave Servers. Other Useful NIS YP Commands. NIS Clients. Common Login Problems. 43. Rights and Permissions. User-Level and Share-Level Security. Microsoft Windows Share-Level Security. Assigning User Rights for Windows 2000, Server 2003, and XP. Managing User Password Policies. Windows NT/2000/2003 NTFS Standard Permissions and Special Permissions. Windows Permissions Are Cumulative. User Groups Make Managing User Rights Easier. User Groups in Windows 2000 and 2003. Active Directory Groups. NetWare. Trustees. File-System Rights. Object and Property Rights. Differences Between NDS and File-System and Directory Rights. Inheritance of Rights. The Everyone Group and the [Public] Group. Unix and Linux. Viewing File Permissions. SUID and SGID File Permissions. Using the su Command. 44. Network Printing Protocols. Printing Protocols and Printing Languages. Using lpr/lpd and the TCP Stream Protocols. Data Link Control Protocol (DLC). Internet Printing Protocol (IPP). IPP Object Types. IPP Operations. What's in Store for Version 1.1? Where Can You Find IPP? 45. Print Servers. Unix/Linux Printing. The BSD Spooling System: lpr and lpd. The SVR4 Printing System. Configuring Windows Print Servers. Printers and Printing Devices. Installing and Configuring Printers on Windows Servers. Windows NT 4.0. Adding a Printer on a Windows 2000 Server. Installing and Configuring Printing on a Windows XP Computer. Printing Under NetWare. Print Queue Object Properties. Printer Object Properties. Print Server Object Properties. PSERVER.NLM and NPRINTER.NLM. The NetWare 6.x iPrint Utility. Hardware-Based Print Servers-Print Server Appliances. VIII. SYSTEM AND NETWORK SECURITY. 46. Basic Security Measures Every Network Administrator Needs to Know. Policies and Procedures. Network Connection Policy. Acceptable Use Statement and Usage Guidelines. Escalation Procedures. What a Security Policy Should Include. Physical Security Measures. Locking the Door. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). Disposing of Hardware and Media in a Secure Manner. The Two Sides of Security. Before the Fact: Controlling Access. After the Fact: Auditing Use. Passwords. System Daemons and Services. Removing Dead Wood. Delegating Authority. User Accounts. Application Servers, Print Servers, and Web Servers. Don't Forget About Firewalls. 47. Auditing and Other Monitoring Measures. Unix and Linux Systems. Using syslog. System Log Files. Configuring Windows NT 4.0 Auditing Policies. Setting Up Events to Audit. Using the Windows NT 4.0 Event Viewer. Configuring Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 Auditing Policies. Enabling Auditing for Files and Folders. Enabling Auditing for Printers. Logging Shutdown and Startup Events with Windows 2003 Server. Using the Windows 2000/2003 Event Viewer. Auditing Windows XP Professional Computers. Novell Security. SYSCON and AUDITCON. NetWare 6 Advanced Audit Service. 48. Security Issues for Wide Area Networks. You've Been Targeted! Computer Viruses, Trojan Horses, and Other Destructive Programs. Trojan Horse Programs. Computer Viruses. How Infections Occur. Your Network Under Fire-Common Attacks. Denial-of-Service Attacks. Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks. SYN Flooding. ICMP Redirects. The Ping of Death. Forged Email. Password Protection and SecurID and Smart Cards. Network Back Doors. Network Probes. Spoofing and Impersonation. If It's Too Good to Be True, It Isn't. Preventative Measures. Protecting Routers. The Network As Target. Protecting Host Computers-Encryption and Virus-Protection Software. Using Tripwire. User Awareness and Training. Staying on Top of Security Issues. 49. Firewalls. What Is a Firewall? Packet Filters. Filtering on IP Addresses. Filtering Based on Protocols. Filtering Based on Port Numbers. Intrusion Detection (Stateful Inspection). Proxy Servers. Standard Proxy Applications. Impersonating the End User: Network Address Translation (NAT). Advantages and Disadvantages of a Proxy Server. Hybrids. What to Expect from a Firewall. Inexpensive Firewalls for SOHO Environments. Hardware Solutions. Software Solutions. Using Both Hardware and Software Firewalls. How Do You Know That the Firewall Is Secure? 50. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) and Tunneling. What Is a VPN? The Mobile Workforce. Protocols, Protocols, and More Protocols! IPSec Protocols. Internet Key Exchange (IKE). The Authentication Header (AH). Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP). The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP). L2TP Encapsulation. 51. Encryption Technology. Computers and Privacy. What Is Encryption? Single-Key Encryption-Symmetric Encryption. Public-Key Encryption. RSA Public Key Cryptography. Digital Certificates. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). IX. TROUBLESHOOTING NETWORKS. 52. Strategies for Troubleshooting Network Problems. A Documented Network Is Easier to Troubleshoot. Documentation and Maintenance-Keeping Things Up-to-Date. Problem-Solving Techniques. The Problem Resolution Cycle. Auditing the Network to Locate Problem Sources. Pitfalls of Troubleshooting. 53. Network Testing and Analysis Tools. Basics: Testing Cables. Handheld Cable Checkers. Cable Testers. Bit Error Rate Testers (BERT). Time Domain Reflectometers. Impedance. Setting a Pulse Width. Velocity. Network and Protocol Analyzers. Establishing a Baseline. Statistical Data. Protocol Decoding. Filtering. Software-Based Analyzers. Other Software LAN Analyzer Products. Hardware Analyzers. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). SNMP Primitives. Network Objects: The Management Information Base (MIB). Proxy Agents. The Complex Road to SNMPv2 and SNMPv3. RMON. 54. Troubleshooting Small Office and Home Office (SOHO) Networks. Power Troubles. Computer Configuration Issues. Component Problems-You Can't Get There from Here. Secure Those Cables! Firewall Problems. Keeping Your Network Healthy. Wireless Networking Problems. When All Else Fails. X. UPGRADING NETWORK HARDWARE. 55. Upgrading from ARCnet to Ethernet or Token-Ring. ARCnet Overview. Upgrading to Ethernet or Token-Ring. Laying Out the New Network. Solving Performance Problems. 56. Upgrading from Token-Ring to Ethernet. The Future of Token-Ring. Phasing Ethernet into the Token-Ring Network. Differences That Make Translation Difficult. Bits and Frames. Notification of Delivery. Routing Information. Replacing All Token-Ring Equipment. Switches and Routers. Network Cabling and Connectors. Network Adapter Cards. 57. Upgrading Older Ethernet Networks. Upgrading from 10BASE-2 or 10BASE-T. Hardware and Software Factors to Consider for 10BASE-2, 10BASE-T, and 100BASE-T. Network Cables. Network Adapter Cards. Network Cable Connectors. Bridges, Hubs, Repeaters, and Switches. Connecting Networks That Use Different Cables or Topologies. Other Possibilities. Upgrading the Network Backbone to Gigabit Ethernet. Using Gigabit Ethernet for High-End Servers. Gigabit Ethernet to the Desktop? Gigabit Ethernet Can Cover the Distance. 10 Gigabit Ethernet Is Becoming Economically Feasible. 58. Upgrading from Bridges and Hubs to Routers and Switches. Growing Beyond a Small LAN. Segmenting the Network Can Improve Performance. Connecting Remote Locations. From Bridges to Routers. Network Protocol Issues. Network Addressing Issues. Other Router Management Issues. Using a Router to Segment the Network. Connecting to a Larger WAN or the Internet. From Bridges to Switches. 59. Adding Wireless Networking to a LAN. Why Go Wireless? Choosing Locations for Access Points. Security Issues. XI. MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION. 60. Migrating from NetWare to Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003. Windows Protocols and Services. Client Services for NetWare (CSNW). Gateway Services for NetWare (GSNW). Microsoft's Services for NetWare Version 5.0 (SFN). Comparison of Windows 2000/2003 and NetWare File Permission Rights. Installing File and Print Services for NetWare Version 5.0 (FPNW 5.0). Microsoft Directory Synchronization Services (MSDSS). File Migration Utility (FMU). 61. Migration and Integration Issues: Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows 2003, Unix, and Linux. Windows 2000/2003 Support for Unix Protocols and Utilities. TCP/IP. Telnetxxx. The File Transfer Protocol. Managing the FTP Service on a Windows Server 2003. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol and BOOTP. DNS. Applications. Microsoft Windows Services for Unix 3.0. Installing SFU 3.0. Network File System. The Korn Shell. Password Synchronization. User Name Mapping. New Telnet Server and Client. ActiveState ActivePerl 5.6. Samba. Sun Network Information System. 62. Migrating from Windows NT 4.0 to Windows 2000, Windows 2003, and Windows XP. Do You Need to Upgrade the Operating System or Applications? Upgrading to Windows 2000 Server. Before You Begin. Windows NT Domain Controllers and Member Servers. Modeling the Directory Structure After Your Business Organization. Domains Are Partitions of the Active Directory. Migration Considerations: Centralized Versus Decentralized Management. Implementing a Migration to the Active Directory for Windows 2000. Start by Upgrading Primary Domain Controller. Adding Other Domains to the Active Directory. Upgrade the Master Domain First. Upgrade the BDCs Next. Upgrading Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 to Windows 2003 Servers. Hardware Requirements for a Windows 2003 Upgrade. The Application Compatibility Toolkit Application. What Role Will Your Server Perform? An Example of Upgrading Windows 2000 Server to Windows 2003 Server Standard Edition. Should You Use Windows 2000 Professional or Windows XP Professional? Upgrading for SOHO Clients. 63. Migration and Integration: NetWare, Unix, and Linux. Why Use Unix or Linux? Key Differences Between Unix/Linux and NetWare. File Sharing. Printer Sharing. User Authentication. Moving User Accounts. Networking Protocols. Applications. NetWare for Linux. APPENDIXES. Appendix A. Overview of the OSI Seven-Layer Networking Reference Model. It's Only a Model! Encapsulation. Physical Layer. Data Link Layer. Network Layer. Transport Layer. Session Layer. Presentation Layer. Application Layer. Appendix B. Networking Glossary. Appendix C. Internet Resources for Network Administrators. Standards Organizations. Network Hardware and Software Manufacturers. Wireless Networking. Security. Appendix D. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. A Quick Introduction to LDAP. The X.500 Protocols and Standards. Acronyms, Acronyms, Acronyms! The Schema. The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. The LDAP Protocol. Binding to the Server. Searching the Database. Adding, Modifying, or Deleting Information in the Directory. Comparing Information in the Directory. LDAP Directories. Windows 2000 and NetWare Are Not the Only Choices You Have. Sticking to Standards: Interoperability Between Directories. Appendix E. Introduction to Setting Up a SOHO Network. Assessing Your Requirements: What Do You Need? Applications Drive Hardware Purchases. SOHO Network Topologies. Backup Solutions for a SOHO Network. Index.
Author Bio: Upgrading and Repairing Networks, Fourth EditionUpgrading and Repairing Networks, Fourth Edition Author Bio Terry William Ogletree is a consultant currently working in New Jersey. He has worked with networked computer systems since 1980, starting out on Digital Equipment PDP computers and OpenVMS-based VAX systems. He has worked with Unix and TCP/IP since 1985 and has been involved with Windows NT and Windows 2000 since they first appeared, as well as the newest additions to the family, Windows XP and the Windows Server 2003 family of servers. Besides being the lead author of the third edition of this book, he is the author of Windows XP Unleashed, Practical Firewalls, and The Complete Idiot's Guide to Creating Your Own CDs (with co-author Todd Brakke), and he has contributed chapters to many other books published by Que, including Microsoft Windows 2000 Security Handbook and Special Edition Using Unix, Third Edition. He is also the author of Fundamentals of Storage Area Networking. When not writing for Que, he has on occasion contributed articles to PC Magazine. You can email him at firstname.lastname@example.org or visit his home page at www.w2003tech.com. When between jobs and not writing for Que, he can often be found on street corners holding a sign that reads "Will work for hundreds of thousands of dollars." Thomas Crayner (Chapter 2) currently is the Director of Applications and Infrastructure Services at a leading pharmaceutical company, where his department keeps 300 servers running in support of R&D operations. Starting with Unix and TCP/IP in the mid-1980s as an applications developer, he slowly worked his way into infrastructure development. During the course of his career, Tom has designed and implemented systems and networks of all shapes and sizes. On the weekends, he can still be found enjoying his original hobby: system and application development. Dwight Tolay, Jr. (Chapter 6) started out as a computer test technician in the 1970s. Branching out into the electrical construction industry, he became familiar with data and fiber-optic cabling, has worked with coax Ethernet and IBM Token-Ring, and has followed the evolution up to today's Category 6 and Gigabyte cabling methods. Currently, he is a general supervisor for Ortlip Electric Co. He is a graduate EE, an ISA certified Level III control systems technician, a licensed electrical contractor, and a certified high-voltage test technician. In addition to being a certified fiber-optic and teledata instructor at a local trade school for the past 13 years, he has contributed as technical editor on various books and currently is involved in a book on Home Data and Electrical Systems Integration. Scott and Kalinda Reeves (Chapters 32 and 33) are a married couple who live in Heron, Montana, where they have written several networking exam books. Scott has accrued his certifications as a Master Certified Novell Engineer (MCNE), Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) in Windows NT, Compaq Accredited Systems Engineer (ASE), Comptia Network+ professional, and Comptia A+ certified technician. He has more than 15 years in the computer industry, and he has worked in the networking field for more than 11 years. Kalinda has more than 16 years' experience writing research, business, technical, and engineering documentation for government, military, and civilian customers. The topics include system- and circuit-level hardware; uniquely developed, hardware-specific programs; and programs that are implemented across government and military communications systems. Kalinda currently works as a freelance writer.