Universal Cyclopaedia and Atlas Volume 4

Universal Cyclopaedia and Atlas Volume 4

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1903 edition. Excerpt: ..."Rubbers " for smiths' use are made from blistered steel, but all other files are made from better grades of steel. Files are forged into sha in a similar manner to all small work in stee, the smith taking care not to work the metal at a Fm 9 higher than a blood-red heat. Peculiar shapes ' ' are produced in dies or formers. Special care is taken to select good fuel for the fircs in which the blanks are forged. It is usually coke, made from coals free from any trace of sulphur. The blanks are very thoroughly annealed after having been forged. The finer ualities are annealed or " lighted " in iron boxes. in which t ey are embedded in sand. Cheaper grades are annealed in ordinar annealing ovens----a less expensive method, but one in whic the blanks are less completely protected against the access of air. The annealed blanks are next ground into the exact shape demanded, and the scale formed during the antecedent process is removed, leaving a clean and roperly formed surface for the file-cutter to work upon. t was formerly 330 FILE customary to shape the blanks by filing, but the use of the rindstone is now much more usual. After grinding, the lanks are eased and sent to the file-cutter. When ji e-outta' is performed by hand, the tools used consist of peculiar y shaped hammers and chisels, an anvil, and packing pieces of lead or pewter. The hammers weigh from 1 to or 6 1b., the smaller sizes being used for very small and the heavier for very large files. They have a sin lar form, such as would be obtained by making the head rst in the form of a truncated p ramid--the u per and lower bases having a. breadth u to about one-fth and one-fourth its altitude respective y--and then bending it to an arc of a radius...show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 924 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 46mm | 1,615g
  • Rarebooksclub.com
  • United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236973569
  • 9781236973566