United States Naval Institute Proceedings Volume 28, No. 2

United States Naval Institute Proceedings Volume 28, No. 2

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1902 edition. Excerpt: ...2. Illuminating oils, distilling over up to 300 deg. Cent. The " cracking" process consists in distilling over the lighter oils at temperatures above those at which they would boil under normal conditions. This is effected either by allowing the products of the distillation to condense and fall back into the contents of the still, or by distilling under pressure. The effect of the process is to decompose the heavier oils remaining in the still and materially decrease their specific gravity. The oil resulting from this process becomes more homogeneous in its composition than before; but if the temperature in the still reaches too high a point, solid carbon is deposited in the form of coke. These deposits of solid carbon, unless careful attention is paid both to the temperature to which the still is exposed and to its design, form a large proportion of the residuum after the lighter oils have been taken off; and continuous distillation on the "cracking" principle seems to be impossible owing to the rapid increase in quantity; but in the presence of steam, on the contrary, it appears to be possible to distil practically the whole of the crude product. One explanation of this phenomenon that has been given is that steam has the property of lowering the boiling points of the hydro-carbons with which it is brought in contact, and therefore allows them to volatilize at temperatures below those at which the cracking process sets in. Superheated steam is generally used in order to attain the temperature required for distillation, which reaches 550 to 600 deg. Fahr. in many cases. Air does not possess this solvent property, nor is it so convenient a vehicle for the heat required in the process of distillation. This part of...
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Product details

  • Paperback | 226 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 12mm | 413g
  • Rarebooksclub.com
  • United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236911970
  • 9781236911971