Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union

Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union

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This report catalogs trade-related barriers that U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) perceive as disproportionately affecting their exports to the European Union (EU) relative to large exporters to the EU. Various approaches were used to gather information directly from SMEs and other interested parties ("respondents") for this report. Respondents reported that numerous EU trade barriers, particularly standards-related measures, limit SMEs' exports to the EU more than those of large exporters. They explained that while complying with standards, technical regulations, and conformity assessment procedures is costly for larger firms, it is potentially prohibitive for SMEs because many costs are fixed regardless of a firm's size or revenue. Respondents also cited difficulties involving trade secrets, patenting costs, and logistics challenges, especially customs requirements, Harmonized System classifications, and the EU's value-added tax system. Trade financing in the EU was reported to be a lesser problem. Besides these cross-cutting issues, the report describes many industry-specific barriers. Many respondents involved with chemicals and related products singled out high compliance costs for the EU chemical regulation, while SMEs exporting cosmetics expressed difficulties meeting the EU's cosmetics directive. Respondents in the apparel industry highlighted the recent retaliatory increase in EU duties on U.S. exports of women's denim jeans, since most affected producers are SMEs. SMEs producing machinery, electronic, transportation, and other goods cited a lack of harmonized international standards and mutual recognition for conformity assessment, as well as problems complying with technical regulations and conformity assessment procedures. Respondents in the agriculture sector reported diverse export barriers. Respondents in the corn, dried fruit, animal feed, cheese, and wheat industries cited high tariffs, stringent and inconsistent EU rules and testing mandates, non-science-based regulations (especially for genetically modified traits), lack of harmonization between U.S. and EU standards, and the EU's protected designations of origin (PDOs). The U.S. poultry and lamb industries reported that they are effectively banned from exporting to the EU. U.S. services SMEs in the healthcare, engineering, testing, and audiovisual industries highlighted a lack of mutual recognition of licensing, credentials, and standards, as well as broadcasting and film quotas, language dubbing requirements, government subsidies, and intellectual property and piracy issues. In certain industries, respondents also provided suggestions for increasing U.S. SME transatlantic trade with the EU and, at times, stories of successfully exporting to the more

Product details

  • Paperback | 108 pages
  • 215.9 x 279.4 x 6.35mm | 340.19g
  • Createspace
  • United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1514683288
  • 9781514683286