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As the only text of its kind, this book provides in-depth information about Vygotsky's theories, neo-Vygotskians' findings, and concrete explanations and strategies that instruct teachers how to influence student learning and development. Key changes to this edition include a new chapter on dynamic assessment, separate and expanded chapters on developmental accomplishments of infants and toddlers, preschool/kindergarten, and primary grades and on supporting those accomplishments, and elaborations of Vygotsky's ideas from neo-Vygotskians from Russia.


Written for the beginning student, the book provides a clear discussion of Vygotskian principles including...a historical overview and a complete chapter on the "Zone of Proximal Development," (ZPD).
Each section of the book builds on the other...framework, strategies, and applications of the Vygotskian approach.
The work of Vygotsky is compared in a fair and balanced way with the work of Piaget.
Examples and activities have been class-tested in a variety of classroom environments including a Head Start program, private preschool, and in the Denver Public Schools.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 264 pages
  • 187.96 x 231.14 x 12.7mm | 385.55g
  • Pearson
  • Upper Saddle River, NJ, United States
  • English
  • 2nd edition
  • 0130278041
  • 9780130278043
  • 64,546

Back cover copy

This unique text provides in-depth information about major concepts and principles of the cultural-historical theory developed by Lev Vygotsky, his students and colleagues, as well as three generations of neo-Vygotskian scholars in Russia and in the West. Tools of the Mind enables teachers to arm young children with the mental tools necessary for learning.

Concrete explanations and strategies on how to scaffold young children's learning and development are provided throughout the text. These are a product of 15 years of collaboration between the authors and early childhood teachers from diverse programs across the United States, most of which serve children from at-risk populations.

Key changes to this expanded edition include:

Separate chapters on developmental accomplishments of infants and toddlers, preschoolers/kindergartners, and primary grade children, each followed by a chapter on supporting those accomplishments Additional strategies for supporting children with special needs A new chapter on dynamic assessment as an application of the zone of proximal development Research findings and practical applications from the neo-Vygotskian approach
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Table of contents

SECTION I The Vygotskian Framework: The Cultural-Historical Theory of Development

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Vygotskian Approach

Chapter 2 Acquiring Mental Tools and Higher Mental Functions

Chapter 3 The Vygotskian Framework and Other Theories of Development and Learning

SECTION II Strategies for Development and Learning

Chapter 4 The Zone of Proximal DevelopmentChapter 5 Tactics: Using Mediators

Chapter 6 Tactics: Using Language

Chapter 7 Tactics: Using Shared Activities

SECTION III Applying the Vygotskian Approach to Development and Learning in Early Childhood

Chapter 8 Developmental Accomplishments and Leading Activity: Infants and Toddlers

Chapter 9 Supporting the Developmental Accomplishments of Infants and Toddlers

Chapter 10 Developmental Accomplishments and the Leading Activity: Preschool and Kindergarten

Chapter 11 Supporting the Developmental Accomplishments in Preschool and Kindergarten

Chapter 12 Developmental Accomplishments and the Leading Activity: Primary Grades

Chapter 13 Supporting the Developmental Accomplishments in the Primary Grades

Chapter 14 Dynamic Assessment: Application of the Zone of Proximal Development




Author Index

Subject Index
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About Deborah J. Leong

Elena Bodrova is a senior researcher at Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) in Denver, Colorado. Prior to her coming to the United States, she was a senior researcher at the Russian Center for Educational Innovations and the Russian Institute for Preschool Education. She received her Ph.D. from the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, Moscow, Russia, and her M.A. from Moscow State University. In addition to her work with Dr. Leong, she co-authored the book, For the Love of Words: Vocabulary Instruction That Works, Grades K-6 (Jossey-Bass) with Diane E. Paynter and Jane K. Doty.

Deborah J. Leong is a professor of psychology and the director of the Center for Improving Early Learning (CIEL) at Metropolitan State College of Denver. She received her Ph.D. from Stanford University and her M.Ed. from Harvard University. In addition to her work with Dr. Bodrova, she is co-author with Oralie McAfee of Assessing and Guiding Young Children's Development and Learning (Allyn & Bacon) that is now in its fourth edition.
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Rating details

165 ratings
4.03 out of 5 stars
5 38% (63)
4 33% (54)
3 25% (41)
2 3% (5)
1 1% (2)
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