Theoretical Organic Chemistry

Theoretical Organic Chemistry

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1913 edition. Excerpt: ...and converts it into equal proportions of glucose and fructose (p. 291). The mixture is known as invert sugar, and the process as inversion. The name has originated from the change of sign in the rotation. Whereas cane-sugar is dextro-rotatory, when a mixture of equal quantities of the two hexoses is present, the lrevo-rotation of fructose, a =-92, more than neutralises the dextro-rotation of glucose, aD = + 52'5, and consequently the effect is lfevo-rotatory. Strong sulphuric acid gradually decomposes and chars canesugar. The action is much more rapid if a little water is first added to the sugar. The charred mass then froths up and evolves carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. Strong hydrochloric acid decomposes cane-sugar like the hexoses, and yields levulinic acid. Strong nitric acid oxidises cane-sugar and forms oxalic acid (p. 341). Cane-sugar forms saccharosates or sucrosates of the metals. It combines with 1, 2, and 3 molecules of strontia. The compound with one molecule of strontia has already been mentioned in connection with the recovery of sugar from molasses. Cane-sugar is not directly fermentable by yeast. Before fermentation takes place the sugar undergoes inversion by means of the enzyme, invertase (p. 105). It has no reducing action upon an alkaline copper solution until it has been hydrolysed. Expt. 107.--Make a solution of cane-sugar and divide it into two portions; boil one portion with a drop or two of dilute sulphuric acid. Add to each two drops of copper sulphate solution, and then caustic soda solution, until a clear blue solution is obtained. On boiling, cuprous oxide is precipitated by the hydrolysed sugar, but not by the unchanged cane-sugar. It would appear from this indifference to alkaline copper solution more

Product details

  • Paperback | 186 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 10mm | 340g
  • Miami Fl, United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236559185
  • 9781236559180