Theoretical Geomorphology

Theoretical Geomorphology

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The surface features of the Earth are commonly split into two categories, the first of which comprises those features that are due to processes occurring inside the solid Earth (endogenic features) and the second those that are due to processes occurring outside the solid Earth (exogenic features). Specifically, the endogenic features are treated in the science of geodynamics, the exogenic features in the science of geomorphology. I have treated the theoretical aspects of the endogenic features in my Principles of Geodynamics, and it is my aim to supplement my earlier book with a discussion of the theory of the exogenic features, the taxonomy of the latter having been discussed in my Systematic Geomorphology. It is my hope that the three books will together pre- sent a reasonably coherent, if necessarily incomplete, account of theoretical geology. Contrary to endogenic phenomena, exogenic processes can often be directly observed as they occur: the action of a river, the develop- ment of a slope, and the evolution of a shore platform are all suffi- ciently rapid so that they can be seen as they take place. This has the result that in geomorphology one is generally on much less specula- tive ground regarding the mechanics of the processes at work than one is in geodynamics.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 434 pages
  • 170 x 242 x 23.11mm | 767g
  • Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
  • Berlin, Germany
  • English
  • Revised
  • 3rd ed. 1991. Softcover reprint of the original 3rd ed. 1991
  • 6 Tables, black and white; XIV, 434 p.
  • 3642756611
  • 9783642756610

Table of contents

1 Physical Geomorphology.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Development of Slopes.- 1.2.1 General Remarks.- 1.2.2 Quantitative Description of Slopes.- 1.2.3 Agents in Slope Formation.- 1.2.4 Patterns of Slope Development.- 1.2.5 Morphology of Mass Movements.- 1.3 Curved Lines in Geomorphology.- 1.3.1 General Remarks.- 1.3.2 The Length of Wiggly Lines.- 1.3.3 Spectrum of a Wiggly Line.- 1.3.4 Fractals.- 1.4 Fluvial Geomorphology.- 1.4.1 General Remarks.- 1.4.2 River Bed Processes.- 1.4.3 Total Material Transport.- 1.4.4 Sideways Erosion.- 1.4.5 Morphometry of Particles.- 1.4.6 Morphology of River Nets.- 1.5 Morphology of Landscape Systems.- 1.5.1 General Remarks.- 1.5.2 Principle of Antagonism.- 1.6 Aquatic Morphology.- 1.6.1 General Remarks.- 1.6.2 Aquatic Land Morphology.- 1.6.3 Shorelines and Coasts.- 1.6.4 Subaqueous Geomorphology.- 1.7 Glacial and Periglacial Morphology.- 1.7.1 Introduction.- 1.7.2 The Snow and Ice Cover.- 1.7.3 Geomorphological Effects of Glacier Motion.- 1.7.4 Glaciohydrological Effects.- 1.7.5 Ground Freezing Effects.- 1.8 Aeolian and Desert Morphology.- 1.8.1 Introduction.- 1.8.2 Occurrence of Effects Due to Wind.- 1.8.3 Further Specific Desert Features.- 1.8.4 Semidesert Features.- References Chapter I.- 2 Physical Background.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.1.1 General Remarks.- 2.1.2 Hydrodynamics of Viscous Fluids.- 2.1.3 Rheology of Solids.- 2.2 Dynamics of Flowing Water.- 2.2.1 Introduction.- 2.2.2 Theory of Turbulence.- 2.2.3 Stratified Flows.- 2.2.4 Underground Flow.- 2.3 Geocryology.- 2.3.1 Introduction.- 2.3.2 Physics of Snow.- 2.3.3 Physics of Ice.- 2.3.4 Physics of Frozen Ground.- 2.4 Physics of the Atmosphere.- 2.4.1 Introduction.- 2.4.2 Statics of the Atmosphere.- 2.4.3 Dynamics of the Atmosphere.- 2.5 Problems of Climate.- 2.5.1 The Notion of Climate.- 2.5.2 Climate Change: Evidence.- 2.5.3 Climate Change: Theory.- References Chapter 2.- 3 Mechanics of Slope Formation.- 3.1 Principles.- 3.2 Reduction of Rocks.- 3.2.1 Basic Statements.- 3.2.2 Chemical Weathering.- 3.2.3 Physical Rock Reduction Processes.- 3.2.4 Biological Effects.- 3.3 Spontaneous Mass Movements on Slopes.- 3.3.1 Taxonomy of Movements :.- 3.3.2 Rheology of Slope Materials.- 3.3.3 Stability of Slopes.- 3.3.4 Rapid Mass Movements on Slopes.- 3.3.5 Slow Spontaneous Mass Movements.- 3.4 External Transporting Agents.- 3.4.1 Basic Statements.- 3.4.2 Mud Flows...- 3.4.3 Debris Flows.- 3.4.4 Slope Development by Free Flow of Water.- 3.5 Mathematical Models of Denudation.- 3.5.1 Introduction.- 3.5.2 Slopes with a Rocky Core.- 3.5.3 Variations of Exposure.- 3.5.4 Nonuniformly Exposed Slopes.- 3.5.5 Endogenic Effects in Slope Development.- 3.5.6 Conclusion of Slope Theory.- References Chapter 3.- 4 Theory of River Action.- 4.1 General Remarks.- 4.2 Linear Flow in Open Channels.- 4.2.1 General Principles.- 4.2.2 Empirical Formulas.- 4.2.3 Turbulent Flow in Rigid Channels.- 4.2.4 Nonuniform Flow.- 4.3 Three-Dimensional Flow in Open Channels.- 4.3.1 The Problem.- 4.3.2 Hydraulics in River Bends.- 4.3.3 Hydraulics of Junctions.- 4.4 Forces of Fluids on Particles.- 4.4.1 General Remarks.- 4.4.2 Gravity Force: Settling Velocity.- 4.4.3 Scouring Force.- 4.4.4 Lifting Force.- 4.5 Sediment Transportation.- 4.5.1 General Remarks.- 4.5.2 Suspended Sediment Transportation.- 4.5.3 The Transportation of Bottom Sediment.- 4.5.4 Total Sediment Transport.- 4.6 Mutual Interaction of Bed, Flow, and Sediment Transport.- 4.6.1 General Remarks.- 4.6.2 Longitudinal Instabilities.- 4.6.3 Mechanics of the Formation of Sedimentary Structures.- 4.6.4 Regime Theory.- 4.6.5 River Bed Profiles.- 4.6.6 Particle Size Profiles.- 4.6.7 Scaling of River Bed Processes.- 4.7 Planar Aspects of River Flow.- 4.7.1 Introduction.- 4.7.2 Hydraulic Geometry Theory.- 4.7.3 Mechanistic Theories of Meandering.- 4.7.4 Stochastic Theory of Meander Formation.- 4.7.5 Experimental Investigations.- 4.7.6 Junctions and Braids.- 4.7.7 Geomorphological Effects of River Motion in Plains.- 4.8 Valley Formation.- 4.8.1 Requirements of a Physical Theory.- 4.8.2 Mountain Valleys.- 4.8.3 Influence of the Earth's Rotation.- References Chapter 4.- 5 System Theory of Landscape Evolution.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Fundamental Principles of Landscape Evolution.- 5.2.1 General Remarks.- 5.2.2 Principle of Antagonism.- 5.2.3 Instability Principle.- 5.2.4 Catena Principle.- 5.2.5 Selection Principle.- 5.2.6 Principle of Tectonic Predesign.- 5.3 General System Theory.- 5.3.1 Introduction.- 5.3.2 Concept of a Geomorphic System.- 5.3.3 Equilibrium Theory.- 5.3.4 Nonequilibrium Theory.- 5.4 System Theory and Drainage Basins.- 5.4.1 General Remarks.- 5.4.2 Topological Aspects.- 5.4.3 Metric Aspects.- 5.4.4 Applications to Related Subjects.- 5.5 Simulations of Landscapes.- 5.5.1 General Remarks.- 5.5.2 The Stochastic Simulation of Landscapes.- 5.5.3 The Physical Simulation of Landscapes.- References Chapter 5.- 6 Theory of Aquatic Effects.- 6.1 General Remarks.- 6.2 Movements in Large Bodies of Water.- 6.2.1 Principles.- 6.2.2 Waves.- 6.2.3 Turbidity Currents.- 6.2.4 Tides.- 6.2.5 Ocean Currents.- 6.3 Aquatic Effects on Land.- 6.3.1 General Remarks.- 6.3.2 Theoretical Limnology.- 6.3.3 Theory of Solution and Deposition Effects.- 6.4 Theoretical Coastal Morphology.- 6.4.1 General Remarks.- 6.4.2 The Nearshore Circulation System.- 6.4.3 Theory of Beaches.- 6.4.4 Theory of Special Features on Shallow Coasts.- 6.4.5 Steep and Hard Rock Coasts.- 6.4.6 Large-Scale Features on Coasts.- 6.5 Dynamics of River Mouths.- 6.5.1 General Remarks.- 6.5.2 General Hydrodynamic Conditions in a River Mouth.- 6.5.3 River Estuaries.- 6.5.4 Theory of Delta Formation.- 6.5.5 Barred River Mouths.- 6.6 Theoretical Submarine Geomorphology.- 6.6.1 General Remarks.- 6.6.2 Shallow Regions.- 6.6.3 Submarine Slope Areas.- 6.6.4 Deep Sea Region.- References Chapter 6.- 7 Theory of Niveal, Glacial, and Periglacial Features ...- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Snow Problems.- 7.2.1 General Remarks.- 7.2.2 Snow as Material.- 7.2.3 Avalanches.- 7.3 Ice Problems.- 7.3.1 General Remarks.- 7.3.2 Mass Balance.- 7.3.3 Longitudinal Movement of Glaciers.- 7.3.4 Three-Dimensional Movement of Ice.- 7.3.5 Theory of Sea and Lake Ice.- 7.4 Theory of Glaciohydrological Effects.- 7.4.1 Introduction.- 7.4.2 Supraglacial Flow.- 7.4.3 Intraglacial and Subglacial Drainage.- 7.4.4 Periglacial Runoff.- 7.4.5 Glacial Lakes.- 7.5 Theory of Geocryological Features.- 7.5.1 Introduction.- 7.5.2 Periglacial Patterned Ground.- 7.5.3 Slope Processes: Rock Glaciers.- 7.5.4 Frost Heave Phenomena.- 7.5.5 Ice-Thrust Features.- References Chapter 7.- 8 Theory of Aeolian and Desert Features.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Theory of Aeolian Features.- 8.2.1 The Significance of Wind Action.- 8.2.2 The Physics of Sand Movement.- 8.2.3 Geomorphological Effects of Blown Sand.- 8.2.4 Physics of Dust Movement.- 8.2.5 Wind Transport of Volcanic Materials.- 8.3 Specific Desert Features.- 8.3.1 Introduction.- 8.3.2 Small-Scale Features.- 8.3.3 Island Mounts.- 8.4 Semidesert Features.- 8.4.1 Introduction.- 8.4.2 Intermittent Water Flows.- 8.4.3 Badlands.- References Chapter 8.
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