The Future of Correctional Rehabilitation

The Future of Correctional Rehabilitation : Moving Beyond the RNR Model and Good Lives Model Debate

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In the aftermath of Martinson's 1974 "nothing works" doctrine, scholars have made a concerted effort to develop an evidence-based corrections theory and practice to show "what works" to change offenders. Perhaps the most important contribution to this effort was made by a group of Canadian psychologists, most notably Donald Andrews, James Bonta, and Paul Gendreau, who developed a treatment paradigm called the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model, which became the dominant theory of correctional treatment. This approach was more recently challenged by a perspective developed by Tony Ward, Shadd Maruna, and others, called the Good Lives Model (GLM). Based in part on desistance research and positive psychology, this model proposes to rehabilitate offenders by building on the strengths offenders possess. GLM proponents see the RNR model as a deficit model that fixes dynamic risk factors rather than identifying what offenders value most, and using these positive factors to pull them out of crime.





Through a detailed examination of both models' theoretical and correctional frameworks, The Future of Correctional Rehabilitation: Moving Beyond the RNR Model and Good Lives Model Debate probes the extent to which the models offer incompatible or compatible approaches to offender treatment, and suggests how to integrate the RNR and GLM approaches to build a new and hopefully more effective vision for offender treatment. A foreword by renowned criminologist Francis T. Cullen helps put the material into context. This book will be of much interest to scholars and students studying correctional rehabilitation as well as practitioners working with offenders.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 218 pages
  • 187 x 235 x 15.24mm | 431g
  • ROUTLEDGE
  • London, United Kingdom
  • English
  • 6 Tables, black and white
  • 1138095982
  • 9781138095984
  • 759,734

Table of contents

CONTENTS





LIST OF TABLES





FOREWORD: Francis T. Cullen





ACKNOWLEDGEMENT





PART I. BEYOND NOTHING WORKS





CHAPTER 1: THE RISE AND FALL OF THE REHABILITATIVE IDEAL


The Discovery of the Rehabilitative Ideal


The Dominance of the Rehabilitative Ideal


The Decline of the Rehabilitative Ideal


Conservative and Liberal Attacks


Martinson and the Nothing Works Doctrine


Conclusion


CHAPTER 2: REAFFIRMING REHABILITATION


Narrative Reviews


Palmer's Reanalysis


Gendreau and Ross's Two Reviews


Meta-Analyses


Overall Effect Size


Heterogeneity in Effect Size


Two Approaches to Knowing What Works


Lipsey's Inductive Approach


The Canadians' Theoretical Approach


Drawing Conclusions on What Works


Conclusion

















PART II. THE RISK-NEED-RESPONSIVITY MODEL





CHAPTER 3: THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE RNR MODEL


The Psychology of Criminal Conduct (PCC)


Understanding Human Behavior: The GPCSL Perspective


Bringing in Criminology to the GPCSL Perspective


Differential Association Theory


Psychodynamic Theory


Social Bond Theory


General Strain Theory (GST)


The PIC-R Perspective: Criminality in the Immediate Situation


Basic Operations of Behavior


The Directions and Magnitude of Effects on Behavior


Other General Issues Suggested by the PIC-R


PIC-R and Offender Assessment


PIC-R and Crime Prevention


Introduction to the Risk-Need-Responsivity Principles


Beyond Mainstream Criminology


Searching for Factors That Matter in Offender Rehabilitation1


Preservice Characteristics of Offenders


Characteristics of Correctional Workers


Practice Factors


Program Factors


Setting Factors


Intermediate Outcomes


Conclusion





CHAPTER 4: THE PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE CORRECTIONAL


TREATMENT: THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY





The RNR Model of Correctional Assessment and Treatment


Principle 1: Respect for the Person and the Normative Context


Principle 2: Psychological Theory


Principle 3: General Enhancement of Crime Prevention Services


Principle 4: Introduce Human Service


Principle 5: Risk


Principle 6: Need


Principle 7: General Responsivity


Principle 8: Specific Responsivity


Principle 9: Breadth (or Multimodal)


Principle 10: Strength


Principle 11: Structured Assessment


Principle 12: Professional Discretion


Principle 13: Community-Based


Principle 14: Core Correctional Staff Practice


Principle 15: Management





RNR-Based Technology of Treatment


RNR-Based Assessment Tools to Predict Criminal Behavior and Classify Offenders


The Importance of Assessment


The Level of Service-Revised (LSI-R)


RNR-Based Assessment Tools to Predict the Quality of Correctional Programs


The Development of Assessment Tools


The Ideal Capacity of Correctional Programs


The Ideal Content of Correctional Program


Conclusion





PART III. THE GOOD LIVES MODEL





CHAPTER 5: THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE GOOD


LIVES MODEL


Beyond Deficits: Building on the Positive


Humanistic Psychology


Positive Psychology


Strength-Based Approach


The General Assumptions of the Good Lives Model


Assumption 1: As human beings, "offenders share the same inclinations and


basic needs as other people and are naturally predisposed to seek certain


goals, or primary human goods"


Assumption 2: "rehabilitation is a value-laden process and involves a variety of


different types of value."


Assumption 3: correctional interventions that address both goods promotion and


risk reduction will produce better outcomes than intervention that neglect either


of these aims


Assumption 4: the process of rehabilitation requires a construction of adaptive


narrative (or personal) identity


Assumption 5: "Human beings are multifaceted beings comprised of a variety of interconnected biological, social, cultural and psychological systems, and are interdependent to a significant degree"


Assumption 6: Risk is a multifaceted and contextualized concept


Assumption 7: "A treatment plan should be explicitly constructed in a form...[that]


take into account individuals' strengths, primary goods and relevant environments,


and specify exactly what competencies and resources are required to achieve these goods"


Assumption 8: Rehabilitative efforts that secure the offenders' human dignity are protected and promoted by offenders' human rights


The Etiological Assumptions of the Good Lives Model


Etiological Assumption 1: "individuals seek a number of primary goods in their offending"


Etiological Assumption 2: criminogenic needs are "internal or external obstacles that frustrate and block the acquisition of primary human goods"


Etiological Assumption 3: "there are different routes to offending, direct and


indirect"


Conclusion





CHAPTER 6: BUILDING GOOD LIVES THROUGH CORRECTIONAL


INTERVENTION


Domain 1: Program Aims and Orientation


Principle 1: "The aims of the treatment program include both risk reduction and well-being enhancement"


Domain 2: Offender Assessment


Principle 2: Treatment programs should assess the offender's level of risk, therapeutic needs (i.e., treatment targets), and responsivity factors


Principle 3: GLM-informed assessment should identify offender's heavily weighted primary goods


Principle 4: Correctional interventions should assess the full aspects of primary


Goods





Domain 3: Intervention Planning


Principle 5: Correctional interventions should construct individualized


intervention plans


Domain 4: Intervention Content


Principle 6: All program components/modules/assignments should "attend to goods promotion alongside risk reduction." The end product of the therapeutic process should be a future-oriented Good Lives Plan


Principle 7: Program content should "attend to the full range of primary goods"


Principle 8: Programs should promote offenders' "social capital through attending to [their] social ecology"


Domain 5: Program Delivery


Principle 9: Therapists should "approach clients in a manner that acknowledges their status as fellow human beings, of equal intrinsic value"


Principle 10: Therapists should deliver programs with a "collaborative and transparent approach to assessment, intervention planning, and intervention


content"


Principle 11: The "intensity, content, and process of intervention [should be] individually tailored"


The Empirical Status of the GLM


Evaluations Without Any Comparison Group


Evaluations With a Comparison Group


Conclusion


PART IV. THE FUTURE OF REHABILITATION





CHAPTER 7: THE RNR-GLM DABATE


The Chronicle of the RNR-GLM Debate





The Incremental Value of the GLM's Theoretical Framework


Controversial Issue 1: The Role of Offender Motivation in Rehabilitation


Controversial Issue 2: The Role of Values in Offender Rehabilitation


Controversial Issue 3: The Role of Needs in Offender Rehabilitation


Controversial Issue 4: The Role of Risk in Offender Rehabilitation


Controversial Issue 5: The Role of Contextual Factors in Offender Rehabilitation


Controversial Issue 6: The Role of Personality in Offender Rehabilitation


Controversial Issue 7: The Role of Human Agency in Offender Rehabilitation





The Correctional Framework of the RNR-GLM Debate


The Psychological Theories within the RNR-GLM Debate


Domain 1: The RNR-GLM Debate and the RNR's Core Principles


The Provision of Human Service within the RNR-GLM Debate


The Adherence to the Risk Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate


The Adherence to the Need Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate


The Adherence to the General Responsivity Principle within the RNR-GLM


Debate


The Specific Responsivity Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate


Domain 2: The RNR-GLM Debate and the RNR's Key Clinical Issue


The Breadth Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate


The Strength Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate


The Structured Assessment Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate


The Professional Discretion Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate


Domain 3: The RNR-GLM Debate and the RNR's Organizational Principles


The Community-Based Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate


The Core Correctional Staff Practice within the RNR-GLM Debate


The Management Principle within the RNR-GLM Debate





Conclusion





CHAPTER 8: BEYOND THE RNR-GLM DEBATE: TWO FUTURES FOR OFFENDER REHABILITATION





The First Future: Independent Models


When the Theoretical Frameworks of the RNR Model and GLM Hold Opposed


View of Offender Rehabilitation


When the Correctional Frameworks of the RNR Model and GLM Hold Opposed


View of Offender Rehabilitation





The Second Future: The RNRM Integrated Model


Overarching Principles


Principle 1: Respect for the Person and the Normative Context


Principle 2: The Major Goal of Correctional Rehabilitation Is to Improve


Offenders first by Reducing Their Recidivism and, second, by Enhancing Their


Well-Being


Principle 3: Psychological Perspective and Theories


Principle 4: General Enhancement of Crime Prevention Services


Core RNRM Principles and Key Clinical Issues


Principle 5: Introduce Human Service


Principle 6: Risk


Principle 7: Need


Principle 8: General Responsivity


Principle 9: Specific Responsivity


Principle 10: Breadth (or Multimodal)


Principle 11: Offenders' Personal Strengths


Principle 12: Structured Assessment


Principle 13: Release Process and Continuity of Care


Principle 14: Professional Discretion


Organizational Principles: Settings, Staffing, and Management


Principle 15: Community-Based


Principle 16: Core Correctional Staff Practices


Principle 17: Management





Conclusion





REFERENCES


SUBJECT INDEX





NAME INDEX
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About Ronen Ziv

Ronen Ziv, PhD, is a research fellow of the University of Cincinnati Corrections Institute and a teaching fellow in the Department of Social Sciences, School of Criminology, at the University of Haifa, Israel. He received his MS (2012) and PhD (2016) in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati. Previously, he received his LLB (2005) and LLM (2006) in Law from Tel-Aviv University and worked as a criminal defense lawyer. His current research interests are in developing and testing the evidence-based approach to correctional rehabilitation, the integration of motivational theories in correctional intervention, and the capacity of correctional agencies to implement a promising correctional framework that aims to rehabilitate offenders.
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