A Text-Book of Elementary Chemistry

A Text-Book of Elementary Chemistry

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1914 edition. Excerpt: ... produced. These are known as Sx and S or amorphous sulphur. As the temperature rises, the second variety increases in quantity (with absorption of heat) at the expense of the first variety. When the temperature is lowered, the reverse change occurs: Sx= S (amorphous). If the temperature is lowered slowly, therefore, only mono-clinic sulphur (by crystallization of the Sx) is obtained. But if the liquid is quickly chilled, by pouring into a cold vessel or into cold water, the SM is found as a non-crystalline substance mixed with the crystalline form. The crystalline form can be dissolved out with carbon disulphidc, leaving the amorphous sulphur (Greek, without form) which is not soluble. The proportion of SM varies from 3.6 per cent at 120, to 11 per cent at 160 and about 30 per cent at 445 (the boiling-point of sulphur). SM is very viscous, so that, as its quantity increases, the whole mixture becomes thick. Much of the brown color, however, is due to impurities. Amorphous sulphur is held to be a super-cooled liquid, and not a true solid, for true solids are all crystalline. At room temperature it changes into rhombic sulphur, but so slowly that the transformation even of a small part of it can be detected (by treating with carbon disulphide) only after the lapse of many months. At 100 the change is complete in less than an hour. Elastic sulphur. When the melted sulphur is chilled, the amorphous sulphur does not at once become hard. When the sulphur has been heated to a high temperature, therefore, the chilled material consists at first of a sticky, transparent, elastic material, called elastic or plastic sulphur. In the course of forty-eight hours, however, this becomes opaque and hard, because of the separation of the crystalline and the...show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 114 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 6mm | 218g
  • Rarebooksclub.com
  • Miami Fl, United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236662695
  • 9781236662699