Technologic Papers of the Bureau of Standards Volume 141-150
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1919 edition. Excerpt: ...The pig irons produced in the southern Apalachian States are high in phosphorus and the castings for enameling produced from these are consequently higher in that element. When northern and southern pig irons can be had at the same price, a mixture giving about 0.8 per cent phosphorus is very satisfactory. (c) Manganese, Sulphur, And Carbon.--The manganese content of American pig irons is rather definitely fixed by the available ores at about o. 5 per cent. This is fairly satisfactory, although a little higher manganese will give stronger iron. Sulphur should, of course, be kept low, since high sulphur causes misruns in the foundry and produces castings that are full of slag holes and very brittle. It should never exceed o. 1 per cent. The carbon content is controlled by "that of the other elements and so is not specified. The total carbon usually runs about 3.5 per cent. J. Grunwald 102 gives the following limits for cast iron for enameling according to German practice: Only recently H. Vogel has advocated the use of a layer of white iron on gray for enameling purposes. Kcramische Rundschau, 23, p. 109; 1915. Stahl und Eisen, 80, pp. 1201-1906. The composition of castings used in enameling shops in this country is about as follows: In plants using southern iron, the compositions will run about the same, except that the phosphorus will vary from 0.75 to 1.25 per cent. While, as has been said, almost any kind of iron can be enameled, it is very important from the standpoint of the enameler that the grade of iron used in the foundry be kept uniform. The harder cast iron is--that is, the lower in silicon and the higher in sulphur--the greater is its coefficient of expansion. Since increase in coefficient of expansion of enamels is...
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