Techniques for Optimizing Applications

Techniques for Optimizing Applications : High Performance Computing

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Description

Practical guide for optimizing performance of HPC. Describes compiler optimization source code modes and parallelization approaches.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 672 pages
  • 178 x 234 x 32mm | 975.22g
  • Prentice Hall
  • Upper Saddle River, United States
  • English
  • 0130934763
  • 9780130934765

Table of contents

Acknowledgments.


Preface.


Who Should Read This Book.


How This Book Is Organized.


Additional Resources.


Code Examples.


Typographical Conventions.
I. GETTING STARTED.

1. Introduction.


Performance Components. Hardware. Software. Optimization Process Overview. Serial Optimization. Parallel Optimization.

2. Overview of Sun UltraSPARC Solaris Platforms.


UltraSPARC-Based Desktop and Server Product Line. UltraSPARC-Based Workstations. UltraSPARC-Based Servers. Sun Technical Compute Farm. Solaris Operating Environment. Sun WorkShop and Forte Developer Tools. HPC ClusterTools Software. Summary.

3. Application Development on Solaris.


Development Basics. Standards Conformance. Binary Compatibility. Source Code Verification Tools. Checking C Programs. Checking Fortran Programs. Additional Source Code Analysis Tools. 64-bit Development and Porting. Fortran Porting. Language Interoperability. Fortran 95 and Fortran 77. C and Fortran. Linking Mixed Languages. Summary.

II. OPTIMIZING SERIAL APPLICATIONS.

4. Measuring Program Performance.


Measurement Methodology. Benchmarking Guidelines. Measurement Tools. Program Timing Tools. Timing Entire Program. Timing Program Portions. Fine-Grained Timing Measurement. Program Profiling Tools. Profiling With prof and gprof. Profiling With tcov. Profiling Tools in Forte Developer 6. Process and System Monitoring Tools. /proc Tools. Process Tracing Tools. System Monitoring Tools. Hardware Counter Measurements. Monitoring Tools. Hardware Counter Overflow Profiling. Code Instrumentation With libcpc Calls. Summary.

5. Basic Compiler Optimizations.


Compilation Overview. Structure of Sun Compilers. Using Sun Compilers. -fast and -xtarget Options. Basic Guidelines. -xarch. Specifying Target Architecture. Generation of Conditional Move Instructions. Creating 64-bit Binaries. -xchip. -xO Optimization Level. -xinline, -xcrossfile. -xdepend. - xvector. -xsfpconst. -xprofile=collect, use. -xprefetch. Summary.

6. Advanced Compiler Optimizations.


IEEE Floating-Point Arithmetic. Binary Storage Format. Trap Handling and -ftrap. Gradual Underflow and -fns. -fsimple. -dalign. -xsafe= mem. Pointer Alias Analysis Options. -xrestrict. -xalias_level. -stackvar. Compiler Directives and Pragmas. pragma pipeloop. pragma opt. pragma prefetch. pragma pack. pragma align. Pointer Alias Analysis Pragmas. Summary.

7. Linker and Libraries in Performance Optimization.


Linking Overview. Static and Dynamic Linking. Structure of an ELF Binary. Solaris Linker Usage. Linking Static and Dynamic Libraries. Weak Symbol Binding. Linker Mapfiles. Linking Optimized Math Libraries. Creating Architecture-Specific Libraries. $PLATFORM and $ISALIST Linker Tokens. $ORIGIN Token. Runtime Linker in Profiling and Debugging. Interposing Libraries. Using LD_PROFILE and LD_DEBUG. Summary.

8. Source Code Optimization.


Overview of Memory Hierarchy. Memory Levels. Memory Organization of UltraSPARC-Based Systems. Memory Hierarchy Optimizations. Cache Blocking. Reducing Cache Conflicts. Reducing TLB Misses. Page-Coloring Effects. Memory Bank Interleaving. Inlining Assembly Templates. Optimal Data Alignment. Restructuring for Better Data Alignment. Double-Word Load and Store Generation. Cache Line Alignment. Preventing Register Window Overflow. Aliasing Optimizations. Aliasing in Fortran Programs. Pointer Aliasing in C Programs. Summary.

9. Loop Optimization.


Loop Unrolling and Tiling. Loop Interchange. Loop Fusion. Loop Fission. Loop Peeling. Loops With Conditionals. Strength Reduction in Loops. Division Replacement. Operations on Complex and Real Operands. Summary.

III. OPTIMIZING PARALLEL APPLICATIONS.

10. Parallel Processing Models on Solaris.


Parallelization Overview. Parallel Scalability Concepts. Parallel Architectural Models. Parallel Programming Models. Multithreading Models. Compiler Auto-Parallelization. OpenMP Compiler Directives. Explicit Multithreading Using P-threads. Multiprocessing Models. UNIX fork/exec Model. MPI Message-Passing Model. Hybrid Models. Summary.

11. Parallel Performance Measurement Tools.


Measurement Methodology. Timing a Parallel Program and Its Portions. Parallel Performance Monitoring With Forte Developer 6 Tools. Trace Normal Form Utilities. Analyzing and Profiling MPI Programs With the Prism Environment. Parallel System Monitoring Tools. Binding a Program to a Set of Processors. Measuring Performance on a Per-CPU Basis. Monitoring Kernel Lock Statistics. Hardware Counter Tools for Parallel Performance Monitoring. cpustat and cputrack Tools. busstat Tool. Summary.

12. Optimization of Explicitly Threaded Programs.


Programming Models for Multithreading. Master-Slave Model. Worker-Crew Model. Pipeline Model. Multithreading in the Solaris Operating Environment. Thread Models. Compiling Threaded Applications. True and False Data Sharing. Synchronization and Locking. Thread Stack Size. Thread Creation Issues. Pool of Threads. Pool of Threads With Spin Locks. Summary.

13. Optimization of Programs Using Compiler Parallelization.


Parallelization Support in Sun Compilers. Parallelization Model. Runtime Settings. Automatic Parallelization. Explicit Parallelization. OpenMP Support in Fortran 95 Compiler. OpenMP Programming Styles. Section Parallel Style. Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) Style. OpenMP Performance Considerations. Synchronization Issues. Data Scoping. Memory Bandwidth Requirement. OpenMP and P-threads. Parallel Sun Performance Library. Linking the Library. Runtime Issues. 64-bit Integer Arguments. Fortran SUNPERF Module. Summary.

14. Optimization of Message-Passing Programs.


Programming Models and Performance Considerations. Workload Distribution. Pipeline Method. Loop Parallelization Methods. Communication Metrics. Sun MPI Implementation. Building and Running MPI Programs. Dynamic Process Management. MPI I/O. Sun MPI Environment Variables. Diagnostic Information. Dedicated and Timeshared System Execution. Optimized Collectives. Point-to-Point Communication. General Performance. Sun Scalable Scientific Subroutine Library. MPI, OpenMP, and Hybrid Approaches. MPI and OpenMP Approaches. Hybrid Approach. Summary.

IV. APPENDICES.

A. Commands That Identify System Configuration Parameters.


Hardware Parameters. System Configuration. Parameters of Installed Software and Hardware. Summary of Commands.

B. Architecture of UltraSPARC Microprocessor Family.


UltraSPARC I and II Processors. UltraSPARC III Processor. UltraSPARC IIi Processor. UltraSPARC IIe Processor.

C. Architecture of UltraSPARC Interconnect Family.


Ultra Port Architecture Interconnect. Gigaplane Interconnect. Gigaplane XB Crossbar Interconnect. Fireplane Interconnect.

D. Hardware Counter Performance Metrics.


CPU Counters. System ASIC Counters.

E. Interval Arithmetic Support in Forte Developer 6 Fortran 95 Compiler.


Interval Arithmetic Basics. Solution of Nonlinear Problems.

F. Differences in I/O Performance.


Reading a File with read/lseek. Reading a File with fread/fseek. Mapping a File to Memory.

References.
Index.
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About Ilya Sharapov

RAJAT P. GARG is a staff engineer in the Performance Technologies Group at Sun Microsystems, where he works on compiler performance analysis and benchmarking. Prior to that, he worked in the Market Development Engineering group, optimizing third-party scientific and technical applications on Sun UltraSPARC systems. He has published over a dozen articles in peer-reviewed technical journals and conferences and has three U.S. patents pending. He obtained a PhD degree in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford University, Palo Alto, California in 1996.

ILYA SHARAPOV is a member of the Market Development Engineering group at Sun Microsystems where he works on performance analysis and optimization of applications for mechanical computer-aided engineering, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics. He has published a number of papers on software engineering and optimization. He received his PhD degree in Mathematics from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1997.
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