Surveying

Surveying : Principles and Applications

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For freshman-junior level Civil Engineering courses in surveying/geomatics, including photogrammetry and hydrographic surveying.

This text presents a clear discussion of surveying principles, and applications for mapping and engineering surveys. It has a good selection of problems that illuminate and reinforce concepts, as well as providing up-to-date information on the latest technological innovations. Real-world emphasis is key to the continued success of this text and the success a student has in understanding surveying concepts. So real world is this text that graduates often arrive for their first day of work carrying it. Suitable for construction, civil technology, civil engineering programs, and general surveying programs.

INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES: Instructor Manual with Powerpoint (Contains over 300 Slides)
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Product details

  • Hardback | 816 pages
  • 195.6 x 236.2 x 35.6mm | 1,406.15g
  • Pearson
  • United States
  • English
  • 7th edition
  • 0131188623
  • 9780131188624

Table of contents

PART I SURVEYING PRINCIPLES

1 BASICS OF SURVEYING

1. 1.1 Surveying Defined

2. 1.2 Types of Surveys

3. 1.3 Classes of Surveys

4. 1.4 Definitions

5. 1.5 Surveying Instrumentation

6. 1.6 Overview of a Modern Surveying Data System - The Science of Geomatics

7. 1.7 Survey Geographic Reference

8. 1.8 Survey Grid Reference

9. 1.9 Survey Legal Reference

10. 1.10 Survey Vertical Reference

11. 1.11 Distance Measurement

12. 1.12 Units of Measurement

13. 1.13 Location Methods

14. 1.14 Accuracy and Precision

15. 1.15 Accuracy Ratio

16. 1.16 Errors

17. 1.17 Mistakes

18. 1.18 Stationing

19. 1.19 Field Notes

20. 1.20 Field Management



2 DISTANCE MEASUREMENT

2.1 Methods of Distance measurement

2.2 Distance Measurement - General

2.3 Other Indirect Measuring Ttechniques

2.4 Gunter's Chain

2.5 Taping

2.6 Taping Accessories

2.7 Taping Techniques

2.8 Standard Conditions for the Use of Steel Tapes

2.9 Taping Corrections, General

2.10 Systematic Slope Corrections

2.11 Erroneous Tape Length Corrections

2.12 Temperature Corrections

2.13.1 Invar Steel tapes

2.13.2 Tension and Sag Corrections

2.15 Random Errors Associated With Systematic Taping Errors

2.16 Random Taping Errors

2.17 Techniques for Ordinary Taping Precision

2.18.1 Mistakes in Taping

2.19 Electronic Distance Measurement

2.20 Electronic Angle Measurement

2.21 Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM)

2.22 EDM Instrument Characteristics

2.23 Prisms

2.24 EDM Instrument Accuracies

2.25 EDM Instrument Operation

2.26 Geometry of EDM Measurements

2.27 EDM Without Reflecting Prisms

Questions

Problems



3 LEVELING

3.1 General Background

3.2 Theory of Differential Leveling

3.3 Curvature and Refraction

3.4 Types of Surveying Levels

3.5 Leveling Rods

3.6 Definitions for Differential Leveling

3.7 Techniques of Leveling

3.8 Benchmark Leveling (Vertical Control Surveys)

3.9 Profile and Cross-Section Leveling

3.10 Reciprocal Leveling

3.11 Peg Test

3.12 Three-Wire Leveling

3.13 Trigonometric Leveling

3.14 Level Loop Adjustments

3.15 Suggestions for Rod Work

3.16 Suggestions for Instrument Work

3.17 Mistakes in Leveling

Problems

4 ANGLES AND DIRECTIONS

4.1 General background

4.2 Reference Directions for Vertical Angles

4.3 Meridians

4.4 Horizontal Angles

4.5 Azimuths

4.6 Bearings

4.7 Relationships Between Bearings and Angles

4.8 Reverse Directions

4.9 Azimuth Computations

4.10 Bearing Computations

4.11 Comments on Bearings and Azimuths

4.12 Magnetic Direction

Problems

5 THEODOLITES

5.1 General Background

5.2 Electronic Theodolite

5.3.1 Theodolite Set-up

5.3.2 Repeating Optical Theodolite

5.5 Angle measurement With an Optical Theodolite

5.6 Direction Optical Theodolites

5.7 Angles Measured with a Direction Theodolite

5.8 Geometry of the Theodolite and Total Station

5.9 Adjustment of the Theodolite and Total Station

5.10 Laying Off Angles

5.11 Prolonging a Straight Line (Double-Centering)

5.12 Bucking-in (also known as interlining and balancing-in)

5.13 Intersection of Two Straight Lines

5.14 Prolonging a Measured Line by Triangulation Over an Obstacle

5.15 Prolonging a Line Past an Obstacle

Questions

6 TRAVERSE SURVEYS

6.1 General Background

6.2 Open Traverse

6.3 Closed Traverse

6.4 Balancing Angles

6.5 Latitudes and Departures

6.6 Computation of Latitudes and Departures

6.7 Traverse Precision and Accuracy

6.8 Traverse Adjustments

6.9 Compass Rule Adjustment

6.10 Effects of Traverse adjustments on the Original Data

6.11 Omitted Measurements

6.12 Rectangular Coordinates of Traverse Stations

6.13 Summary of Traverse Computations

6.14 Area of a Closed Traverse by the Coordinate method

6.15.1 Geometry of Rectangular Coordinates

6.15.2 Illustrative Problems In Rectangular coordinates

Problems

7 TOTAL STATIONS

7.1.1 General Background

7.1.2 Total Station Capabilities

7.1.3 Total Station Field Techniques

7.1.4 Summary of Total station Characteristics

7.5 Field Procedures for Total Stations in Topographic Surveys

7.6 Field-Generated Graphics

7.7 Construction Layout Using Total Stations

7.8 Motorized Total Stations

7.9.1 Summary of Modern Total station Characteristics

7.9.2 Hand-held Total Stations

Questions



8 TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING AND MAPPING

8.1 General Background

8.2 Maps and Plans

8.3 Scales and Precision

8.4 Plan Plotting

8.5 Contours

8.6 Summary of Contour Characteristics

8.7 Topographic (Planimetric) Surveys

8.8 Cross Sections and Profiles

8.9 Cross sections, End Areas and Volumes

8.10 Prismoidal Formula

8.11 Construction Volumes

8.12 Area Computations

8.13 Area by Graphical Analysis

Problems





9 Geographic Information Systems



9.1 The Evolution from Mapping to GIS

9.2 Components of a GIS

9.3 Sources for GIS Data

9.4 Georeferencing

9.5 Database Management

9.6 Metadata

9.7 Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)

9.8 Spatial Entities or Features

9.9 Typical Data Representation

9.10 Spatial Data Models

9.11 GIS Data Structures

9.12 Topology

9.13 Data Analysis Summary

9.14 GIS Glossary

9.15 Internet Website

9.16 Publications

Questions





10 Control Surveys

10.1 General Background

10.2 Plane Coordinate Grids

10.3 Lambert Projection

10.4 Transverse Mercator Projection

10.5 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid System

10.6 Use of Grid Coordinates

10.7 Illustrative Examples

10.8 Horizontal Control Techniques

10.9 Project Control

10.10 Control Survey Markers

10.11 Direction of a Line by Observation on Polaris

10.12 Time

10.13 Polaris

10.14 Procedure for Observing Polaris

10.15 Computation Technique for Azimuth Determination

10.16 Direction of a Line by Gyro-Theodolite

Questions

Problems





11 Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Global Satellite Positioning

11.3 Receivers

11.4 Constellations

11.5 GPS Satellite Signals

11.6 Position Measurements

11.7 Errors

11.8 Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS)

11.9 Canadian Active Control System (ACS)

11.10 Survey Planning

11.11 GPS Field Procedures

11.12 GPS Applications

11.13 Vertical Positioning

11.14 Conclusion

11.15 GPS Glossary

11.16 Recommended Readings and Related Websites

Questions



PART II Remote Sensing

12 Satellite Imagery

12.1 General Background

12.2 Techniques of Remote Sensing

12.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum

12.4 Selection of Radiation Sensors

12.5 An Introduction to Image Analysis

12.6 Classification

12.7 Feature Extraction

12.8 Ground-Truth or Accuracy Assessment

12.9 U.S. National Land cover Data (NLCD)

12.10 Remote-Sensing Satellites

12.11 Imaging Radar Satellites

12.12 Satellite Imagery Versus Airborne Imagery

12.13 Remote Sensing Web Sites

Questions

13 Airborne Imagery

13.1 General Background

13.2 Aerial Camera Systems

13.3 Photographic Scale

13.4 Flying Heights and Altitude

13.5 Relief (Radial) Displacement

13.6 Flight Lines and Photograph Overlap

13.7 Ground Control for Mapping

13.8 Mosaics

13.9 Stereoscopic Viewing and Parallax

13.10 Photogrammetric Stereoscopic Plotting Techniques

13.11 Airborne Digital Imagery

13.12 Orthophotos

13.13 Lidar Mapping

13.14 Aerial Surveying and Photogrammetric Mapping

13.15 Aerial Photography Interpretation

13.16 Applications of Air Photo Interpretation for the Engineer
and the Surveyor

13.17 Airborne Imaging Web Sites

13.18 Additional Reading

Questions

Problems



PART III Surveying Applications

14 Highway Curves

14.1 Route Surveys

14.2 Circular Curves: General Background

14.3 Circular Curve Geometry

14.4 Circular Curve Deflections

14.5 Chord Calculations

14.6 Metric Considerations

14.7 Field Procedure

14.8 Moving up on the Curve

14.9 Offset Curves

14.10 Compound Circular Curves

14.11 Reverse Curves

14.12 Vertical Curves: General Background

14.13 Geometric Properties of the Parabola

14.14 Computation of the High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve

14.15 Procedure for Computing a Vertical Curve

14.16 Design Considerations

14.17 Spiral Curves: General Background

14.18 Spiral Curve Computations

14.19 Spiral Layout Procedure Summary

14.20 Approximate Solution for Spiral Problems

14.21 Superelevation: General Background

14.22 Superelevation Design

Questions

Problems

15 Construction Surveys

15.1 General Background

15.2 Grade

15.3 Machine Guidance and Control

15.4 Accuracy and Mistakes

15.5 Construction Control

15.6 Measurement for Interim and Final Payments

15.7 Final Measurements for As-Built Drawings

15.8 Municipal Roads Construction

15.9 Highway Construction

15.10 Sewer and Tunnel Construction

15.11 Culvert Construction

15.12 Building Construction

15.13 Other Construction Surveys

15.14 Construction Survey Specifications

Questions

Problems

16 Land Surveying

16.1 General Background

16.2 Public Land Surveys (North America)

16.3 Property Conveyance

16.4 Rural Land Surveys

16.5 Electronic Research For Re-Surveys

16.6 Urban Land Surveys

16.7 Cadastral Surveying

16.8 Related Web Sites

Problems

17 Hydrographic Surveys

17.1 General Background

17.2 Objectives of Hydrographic Mapping and Electronic Charting

17.3 Planning

17.4 Survey Vessels

17.5 Vertical Control: Depth and Tidal Measurements

17.6 Position-Fixing Techniques

17.7 Sounding Plan

17.8 Horizontal Shore Control

17.9 Processing and Presentation of Data

17.10 Airborne Laser Bathymetry

Problems

Part IV APPENDICES

Appendix A Random Errors

Appendix B Trigonometric Definitions and Identities

Appendix C Glossary

Appendix D Answers to Selected Chapter Problems

Appendix E Internet Web Sites

Appendix F Examples of Current Geomatics Technology

Appendix G Typical Field Projects

Appendix H Early Surveying

INSTRUCTOR MANUAL CONTENTS

CONTENTS



Section A: Text Problem Solutions



Chapter 2 Page 1



Chapter 3 Page 5



Chapter 4 Page 10



Chapter 6 Page 16



Chapter 8 Page 23



Chapter 10 Page 25



Chapter 13 Page 28



Chapter 14 Page 30



Chapter 15 Page 37



Chapter 16 Page 38



Chapter 17 Page 41





Section B: Typical Course Outlines, Project Descriptions and Tests



Typical Evaluation scheme Page 45



Subject outline Surveying I Page 46



Subject outline Surveying II Page 47



Term Assignments, Surveying I Page 48



Term Assignment, Surveying II Page 49



Sample Tests and Solutions Page 50



Typical Class Handouts Page 59

for Instrument and Software Use.







Section C: PowerPoint Slides



Contents (over 300 slides) Page 70
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