Statistical Detection and Surveillance of Geographic Clusters

Statistical Detection and Surveillance of Geographic Clusters

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Description

The widespread popularity of geographic information systems (GIS) has led to new insights in countless areas of application. It has facilitated not only the collection and storage of geographic data, but also the display of such data. Building on this progress by using an integrated approach, Statistical Detection and Monitoring of Geographic Clusters provides the statistical tools to identify whether data on a given map deviates significantly from expectations and to determine quickly whether new point patterns are emerging over time. The book begins with a review of statistical methods for cluster detection, organized according to the different types of hypotheses and questions about clustering that can be investigated. It then delineates methods that allow for the quick detection of emergent geographic clusters. The book delivers a cohesive presentation unlike that of most edited volumes. Drawing on the authors' extensive work in the field, the book delineates methods in such a way that they can be applied, almost instantly, to an array of disciplines. The readily applicable methods the book describes are useful for a multitude of problems in a variety of fields, particularly disease surveillance in the public health industry. Statistical Detection and Monitoring of Geographic Clusters is an essential volume for your reference shelf.show more

Product details

  • Electronic book text | 324 pages
  • Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Chapman & Hall/CRC
  • London, United Kingdom
  • 300 equations; 63 Tables, black and white; 85 Illustrations, black and white
  • 1584889365
  • 9781584889366

Table of contents

Introduction and OverviewSetting the StageThe Roles of Spatial Statistics in Public Health and Other FieldsLimitations Associated with the Visualization of Spatial DataSome Fundamental Concepts and DistinctionsTypes of Tests for ClusteringStructure of the BookSoftware Resources and Sample DataIntroductory Spatial Statistics: Description and InferenceIntroductionMean CenterMedian CenterStandard DistanceRelative Standard DistanceInferential Statistical Tests of Central Tendency and DispersionIllustrationAngular DataCharacteristics of Spatial Processes: First-Order and Second-Order VariationKernel Density EstimationK-FunctionsDifferences and Ratios of Kernel Density EstimatorsDifferences in K-FunctionsGlobal StatisticsIntroductionNearest Neighbor StatisticQuadrat MethodsSpatial Dependence: Moran's IGeary's CA Comparison of Moran's I and Geary's COden's Ipop StatisticTango's Statistic and a Spatial Chi-Square StatisticGetis and Ord's Global StatisticCase-Control Data: The Cuzick-Edwards TestA Global Quadrat Test of Clustering for Case-Control DataA Modified Cuzick-Edwards TestLocal StatisticsIntroductionLocal Moran StatisticScore StatisticTango's CF StatisticGetis' Gi StatisticStone's TestModeling around Point Sources with Case-Control DataCumulative and Maximum Chi-Square Tests as Focused TestsThe Local Quadrat Test and an Introduction to Multiple Testing via the M-TestTests for the Detection of Clustering, Including Scan StatisticsIntroductionOpenshaw et al.'s Geographical Analysis Machine (GAM)Besag and Newell's Test for the Detection of ClustersFotheringham and Zhan's MethodCluster Evaluation Permutation ProcedureExploratory Spatial Analysis Approach of Rushton and LolonisKulldorff's Spatial Scan Statistic with Variable Window SizeBonferroni and Sidak AdjustmentsImprovements on the Bonferroni AdjustmentRogerson's Statistical Method for the Detection of Geographic ClusteringRetrospective Detection of Changing Spatial PatternsIntroductionThe Knox Statistic for Space-Time InteractionTest for a Change in Mean for a Series of Normally Distributed ObservationsRetrospective Detection of Change in Multinomial ProbabilitiesIntroduction to Statistical Process Control and Nonspatial Cumulative Sum Methods of SurveillanceIntroductionShewhart ChartsCumulative Sum (Cusum) MethodsMonitoring Small CountsCumulative Sums for Poisson VariablesCusum Methods for Exponential DataOther Useful Modifications for Cusum ChartsMore on the Choice of Cusum ParametersOther Methods for Temporal SurveillanceSpatial Surveillance and the Monitoring of Global StatisticsBrief Overview of the Development of Methods for Spatial SurveillanceIntroduction to Monitoring Global Spatial StatisticsCumulative Sum Methods and Global Spatial Statistics That Are Observed PeriodicallyCUSUM Methods and Global Spatial Statistics That Are Updated PeriodicallySummary and DiscussionCusum Charts for Local Statistics and for the Simultaneous Monitoring of Many RegionsMonitoring around a Predefined LocationSpatial Surveillance: Separate Charts for Each RegionMonitoring Many Local Statistics SimultaneouslySummaryAppendixMore Approaches to the Statistical Surveillance of Geographic ClusteringIntroductionMonitoring Spatial MaximaMultivariate Cusum ApproachesSummary:Associated Tests for Cluster Detection and SurveillanceIntroductionAssociated Retrospective Statistical TestsAssociated Prospective Statistical Tests: Regional Surveillance for Quick Detection of ChangeReferencesAuthor IndexSubject Indexshow more

Review quote

Researchers in a surprisingly diverse range of disciplines find themselves faced with problems needing the methods that are described in this book: the detection of anomalous groupings of objects or events within geographical distributions. ... Chapters 7-10 [explore] methods for the prospective detection of changes as they occur. This area is rapidly becoming increasingly important in applications such as detecting outbreaks of disease, fraud and even potential terrorist activity. The book is liberally illustrated with real examples and data ... a good introduction to the ideas for students encountering them for the first time.-Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 2010 Attractive features of this book are: (1) introduction of various statistical methods/tests for geographic clusters and surveillance, (2) many figures and tables to facilitate understanding, and (3) illustration of each method with real data. ... readers who are particularly interested in surveillance will find this book a helpful guide.-Journal of the American Statistical Association, Sept. 2010, Vol. 105, No. 491 In contrast to most edited books, the authors' text provides a comprehensive presentation that will provide a valuable reference source for years to come. I recommend that anyone working with geographic information systems (GIS) consult this volume, as there are many valuable nuggets of information-many unexpected!-International Statistical Review, 2009show more