Spons' Dictionary of Engineering, Civil, Mechanical, Military, and Naval Volume 8

Spons' Dictionary of Engineering, Civil, Mechanical, Military, and Naval Volume 8

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1874 edition. Excerpt: ...take tho gaseous form, and raise the blisters by the force of their elasticity. What those gases are is unknown; but it is known that, whatever the impurities, they are got rid of in the crucible of the melting furnace when bar steel is made into cast steel. Bmemer Proem.--Tho most recent and advanced practice in the working of this process was fully described in a lecture given in the United States by Alex. L. Holley, and to his lecture we are greatly indebted for the following particulars. The Bessemer process as first performed, and as still practised to a very limited extent, with irons rich in manganese, consists in applying the blast until all but J to J of 1 per cent, of the carbon is burned out, and then casting tho product. Stopping the blast at this point, however, is very uncertain; hardly any irons contain the right amount of manganese for this treatment, and tho process has certain mechanical objections. Hence tho nearly universal.practice is to blow the iron until all the carbon is exhausted, a point readily determined. But the product now contains so much oxide of iron, that it is red-short and crumbles in working. To reduce this oxide of iron, manganese, which has a stronger affinity for tho oxygen than the iron has, is added, by running into the converter 6 to 8 per cent, of melted Franklinite, or spiegeleisen, which is a pig iron containing about 10 per cent, of manganese. One quarter to 1 per cent, of carbon is also added to the product by the spiegeleisen, so that the result is the same as in the first process, and the convenience and economy are for greater. No phosphorus whatever is removed from the iron in the Bessemer process, and only 12 to 15 hundredths of 1 per cent, of phosphorus are admissible in steel. More will make...show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 314 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 17mm | 562g
  • Rarebooksclub.com
  • English
  • Illustrations, black and white
  • 1236485440
  • 9781236485441