Thomas A. Germer received a B.A. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1985. In 1992, he received a Ph.D. in physics from Cornell University in the field of surface electron spectroscopies and surface photochemistry. An interest in optics at surfaces led him to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where he held a postdoctoral associateship from 1992 to 1995, performing research in picosecond and femtosecond time-resolved measurements of surface chemical and physical dynamics. He joined the NIST staff as a physicist in the 1995. Since then, he has led the NIST program on light scattering and diffraction from surfaces. His work has earned him the Department of Commerce Bronze and Silver awards, The NIST Chapter of Sigma Xi Young Scientist Award, and Fellow of the SPIE, and he has served as a topical editor for Applied Optics. He has published over 100 articles and has been granted two patents. He developed the SCATMECH library of scattering codes. Joanne C. Zwinkels is a Principal Research Officer at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). She received her PhD in Physical Chemistry from the University of Alberta (1983) with specialization in the infrared optical properties of solids. In 1984, she joined the NRC Division of Physics to work in the field of spectrophotometry and from 1991 to 2009 was the Group Leader for Photometry and Radiometry. Her research activities involve the development of new reference instrumentation, standards and procedures for high-accuracy spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry and color and appearance measurements. Her accomplishments include the development of a reference spectrophotometer for regular transmittance measurements, a reference spectrofluorimeter for high-accuracy surface fluorescence measurements, and is currently extending fluorescence measurement capabilities to other geometries and applications by the development of a reference goniospectrofluorimeter. Joanne is actively involved in international standardization activities and currently serves as Chair of the Strategic Planning Working Group of the Consultative Committee of Photometry and Radiometry, International Convenor of ISO TC6/WG3 (Paper, board and pulps: optical properties), and Associate Director of CIE Division 2 (Physical Measurement of Light and Radiation). Joanne is a recipient of the NRC Outstanding Achievement Award for Leadership (2006) and of the 2010 Macbeth Award given out biannually by the Inter-Society Color Council (ISCC) for outstanding contributions in color science and technology. Benjamin K. Tsai graduated from Brigham Young University with a BSME degree in 1987. Next, he obtained a MSME degree in 1990 at Purdue University by completing his thesis on "Dual-wavelength Radiation Thermometry: Emissivity Compensation Algorithms." In 1993 he finished a PhD degree at Purdue University with a dissertation entitled, "Macroscopic Spread Function Analysis for Subsurface Scattering in Semitransparent Materials." Since that time, he has worked in the Sensor Science Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. His interests and projects have included development of a new irradiance scale, developing the ambient background infrared calibration laboratory, setting up high heat flux calibrations, making accurate temperature measurements in rapid thermal processing, modeling diffraction effects, performing low-temperature radiance temperature and spectrophotometric calibrations, evaluating skin reflectance, understanding ageing effects in ceramics, setting up a synchrotron beamline, and improving spectrophotometry in the SWIR using extend InGaAs detectors.