Foreword.- I. Global Properties of the Photosphere.- Models of the Solar Photosphere.- Thermal Bifurcation of the Outer Photosphere.- Temperature Diagnostics of the Upper Photosphere.- Solar Oscillator Strengths as a Diagnostic Tool.- Average Variations of Photospheric Fe I And Fe II Line Parameters as Function of the Magnetic Filling Factor.- II. Photospheric Fine Structure.- High Resolution Observations of the Photosphere.- Properties of the Solar Granulation.- Analysis of the Solar Granulation in the Opacity Minimum Region.- Fine Structure of Photospheric Faculae.- Bright Features in the Intergranular Region.- III. Small-scale Magnetic Fields.- Empirical Models of Photospheric Flux Tubes.- Empirical Photospheric Fluxtube Models From Inversion of Stokes V Data.- Properties of Photospheric Fluxtubes Derived from Magnetograph Observations.- Small-Scale Magnetic Features Observed in the Photosphere.- High-Resolution Observations of Emerging Magnetic Fields and Flux Tubes in Active Region Photosphere.- Small Scale Motions Over Concentrated Magnetic Field Regions of the Quiet Sun.- Small Scale Magnetic Structures in Active Centers.- Theoretical Aspects of Small-Scale Photospheric Magnetic Fields.- Model Calculations of the Photospheric Layers of Solar Magnetic Fluxtubes.- Wave Heating in Magnetic Flux Tubes.- IV. Magnetohydrodynamics of the Photosphere.- Solar Magnetoconvection.- Results from 2-D Numerical Simulations of Solar Granules.- Waves and Oscillations in the Non-Magnetic Photosphere.- Waves and Oscillations in Magnetic Fluxtubes.- On the 5-Minute Photospheric Oscillation and its Modeling.- Classification of Magnetoatmospheric Modes in Sunspot Umbrae.- The Observational Signature of Flux Tube Waves and an Upper Limit on the Energy Flux Transported by them.- Magnetic Flux Concentration by Siphon Flows in Isolated Magnetic Flux Tubes.- Electric Currents in the Atmosphere of the Sun.- Generation of Magnetic Fields and Electric Currents in the Solar Photosphere.- V. Large-scale Structure and Dynamics.- Global Evolution of Photospheric Magnetic Fields.- Origin of the Sun's Differential Rotation.- The Sun's Rotation Rate as Inferred from Magnetic Field Data.- Generators of Solar Differential Rotation and Implications of Helioseismology.- Asymmetry of Emerging Flux Loops Caused by Radial Differential Rotation.- Convection and its Stability in the Equatorial Regions of the Convection Zone.- Inverse Cascade in Hydrodynamic Turbulence and its Role in Solar Granulation.- Generation of Torsional Oscillations in the Sun.- VI. Generation of Solar Magnetic Fields.- Order and Chaos in the Solar Cycle.- Symmetry Breaking in the Solar Dynamo: Nonlinear Solutions.- Excitation of Dynamo Modes.- Study of Sun's "Hydromagnetic" Oscillations Using Sunspot Data.- Variation of Even and Odd Parity in the Solar Dynamo.- Self-Ordering of Photospheric Magnetic Fields.- Torsional Oscillations and the Solar Dynamo Regime.- Large-Scale Internal Magnetic Field of the Sun.- VII. Convection and Magnetic Fields in Solar-type Stars.- Observing, Modeling, and Understanding Stellar Granulation.- A Model for Stellar Convection and Spectral Line Asymmetries.- Comparative Analysis of Physical Conditions in the Solar and Procyon Atmospheres.- Magnetic Fields on Solar-Like Stars: The First Decade.- Results of Coordinated Multiwavelength Observations of Solar-Type Stars.- Nonlinear Dynamo Modes and Timescales of Stellar Activity.- Does a Common Dynamo Mechanism Exist for Lower Main Sequence Stars?.- VIII. Future Directions.- Ground Based and Space Future Prospects in Solar Interferometry Applied to the Photosphere.- New Observational Aspects.- Outstanding Theoretical Problems.- Summary Lecture.- List of Poster Papers.- Letter to G. Bush and M. Gorbachev.- List of Participants.- Author Index.