In-Situ Microscopy in Materials Research : Leading International Research in Electron and Scanning Probe Microscopies
2. High Temperature UHV-STM System 264 3. Hydrogen Desorption Process on Si (111) Surface 264 4. (7x7) - (1 xl) Phase Transition on Si (111) Surface 271 Step Shifting under dc Electric Fields 275 5. 6. Conclusions 280 Acknowledgements and References 281 12. DYNAMIC OBSERVATION OF VORTICES IN SUPERCONDUCTORS USING ELECTRON WAVES 283 by Akira Tonomura 1. Introduction 283 2. Experimental Method 284 2. 1 Interference Microscopy 284 2. 2 Lorentz Microscopy 287 Observation of Superconducting Vortices 288 3. 3. 1 Superconducting Vortices Observed by Interference Microscopy 288 3. 1. 1 Profile Mode 288 3. 1. 2 Transmission Mode 291 3. 2 Superconducting Vortices Observed by Lorentz Microscopy 293 3. 3 Observation of Vortex Interaction with Pinning Centers 294 3. 3. 1 Surface Steps 295 3. 3. 2 Irradiated Point Defects 296 4. Conclusion 298 References 299 13. TEM STUDIES OF SOME STRUCTURALLY FLEXIBLE SOLIDS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS 301 by Ray L. Withers and John G. Thompson 1. Introduction 301 2. Tetrahedrally Comer-Connected Framework Structures 302 3. Tetragonal a-PbO 311 4. Compositionally Flexible Anion-Deficient Fluorites and the "Defect Fluorite" to C-type Sesquioxide Transition 320 5. Summary and Conclusions 327 Acknowledgements and References 327 Author Index 331 Subject Index 333 List of Contributors A. ASEEV Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences Novosibirsk, 630090, pr. ac. , Lavrentjeva 13, RUSSIA E. BAUER Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287-1504, U. S. A. G. H.
- Hardback | 336 pages
- 155.96 x 233.93 x 20.57mm | 1,501.38g
- 30 Sep 1997
- Dordrecht, Netherlands
- 1997 ed.
- 183 Illustrations, black and white; XVIII, 336 p. 183 illus.
Table of contents
Preface; P.L.Gai. Foreword; D.B. Williams. 1. In-Situ Applications of Low Voltage Electron Microscoy (LEEM); E. Bauer. 2. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy; G.D. Danilatos. 3. ESEM Development and Application in Cultural Heritage Conservation; E. Doehne. 4. Intrinsic Point Defect Clustering in Si: A Study of HVEM and HREM In-Situ Electron Irradiation; L. Fedina, et al. 5. In-Situ Observations and Quantitative Analysis of Electromigration Void Dynamics; R. Frankovic, G.H. Bernstein. 6. Environmental High Resolution Electron Microscopy (EHREM) in Materials Science; P.L. Gai, E.D. Boyes. 7. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Thin Film Growth; J.M. Gibson. 8. HREM In-Situ Experiment at Very High Temperatures; T. Kamino, H. Saka. 9. In-Situ REM and TEM Studies of Homo and Hetero-Epitaxy on Silicon Surfaces; H. Minoda, K. Yagi. 10. Atom Scale Fabrication of Metal Surfaces by Adsorption and Chemical Reaction; K. Tanaka, et al. 11. High Temperature Dynamic Behavior of Silicon Surfaces Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM); H. Tokumoto. 12. Dynamic Observation of Vortices in Superconductors Using Electron Waves; A. Tonomura. 13. TEM Studies of Some Structurally Flexible Solids and Their Associated Phase Transformations; R.L. Withers, J.G. Thompson. Author Index. Subject Index.
About Pratibha L. Gai
Pratibha L. Gai is a senior research associate at the Central Research and Development, Science and Engineering Laboratories, DuPont and an adj. professor at the University of Delaware, USA. After graduating with a PhD in physics from the University of Cambridge, England, she taught and conducted research, leading the surface reactions group at the University of Oxford, England. She was elected a fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. Her research interests are theories and experimental aspects of electron diffraction, defects in solids, ceramics, superconductors, semiconductors, heterogeneous catalysis and chemical synthesis. She has published about 22 research papers and reviews and has given numerous invited lectures internationally. She has received several educational awards and joint grants for her key fundamental work on in-situ electron microscopy of heterogeneous catalysts, including by the Royal Society, UK and the American Chemical Society. She is a member and fellow of several professional scientific societies, Chartered Engineer of the Institute of Materials, UK and is on the editorial board of international scientific journals.