Sessional Papers of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario Volume 29, No. 7

Sessional Papers of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario Volume 29, No. 7

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1897 edition. Excerpt: ...the roads are not only impassable on account of the mud, but are injured by traffic more than in all the remaining nine or ten months of the year. One year's statute labor with the annual appropriation, spent in providing proper drains for the roads of the province would do more than can be done in five years with the present method of merely filling the holes which appear, with gravel or crushed stone. Underdraining and grading should be carried on simultaneously. Unless drained, the traflic during the ensuing autumn and spring will usually leave a graded road as shapeless and rough as a pioneer wagon track can be. If drained, there will be a foundation for the gravel or crushed stone to rest on when applied. A porous soil, like a sponge, retains in its texture, by attraction, a certain amount of water. When water in excess of this is added, it sinks to the first impenetrable strata, and from there it rises higher and higher until it finds a lateral outlet; just as water poured into a pail will rise higher and higher until it finds an outlet in the side of the pail, or until it flows over the top. Underdraining supplies the necessary outlet for this excess moisture at a proper depth from the surface; it "lowers the water line." With plastic clays the process is slightly different. Clay will absorb nearly one-half its bulk and weight of water. In drying, it shrinks and is torn apart in different directions. The fissures thus commenced by a. tile drain become new drains to lead water to the tile; and so the process of contracting and cracking continues until a net work of fissures is produced, and the stiflest clay is thereby drained. The injury done to roads by frost is caused entirely by the presence of water. Water expands...
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Product details

  • Paperback | 356 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 19mm | 635g
  • United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236756029
  • 9781236756022