Excerpt from The Scottish Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 7: July to December, 1900
The clinical features have been so carefully given by previous writers that it will not be necessary to dwell much upon them. It may, however, be mentioned that the two cardinal symptoms - involuntary head movements and ocular nystagmus - are both present in the great majority of cases. In some, however, only head-shaking is observed. We also occasionally find nystagmus occurring alone under such circum stances and with such characters as to make it extremely probable that it is of the same nature as that which occurs with spasmus nutans. This, however, cannot as yet be regarded as proven, and therefore such cases of the kind as I have seen have been placed in a separate table.
The intimate connection between the head movements and those of the eyes is illustrated by two facts. When closure of the unsteady eyes (or eye) takes place naturally in sleep, or is artificially produced by the application of wadding and a bandage (caille, Raudnitz), the head-shaking ceases. Also when the head is passively steadied by the hand the nystagmus increases, or may appear for the first time.
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