Scientific American; Supplement Volume 46

Scientific American; Supplement Volume 46

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1898 edition. Excerpt: ...which is just now a candidate for popular favor as a brilliant illuminant. The second is nitrous oxide (the so-called laughing gas). The third, carbon dioxide. is liquefied here in Philadelphia on a commercial scale for various purposes, principally (in consequence of the pressure it exerts) for making soda water and for forcing beer out of the cask. Then la.-tly we come to ethylene (called olefiant gas, because with chlorine it makes an oil known asthe oil of the Dutch chemists). The temperatures for these gases are all plus quantities: ethylene. plus 10; carbon dioxide, plus 32"; nitrous oxide. plus 53"; and acetylene. plus 57. This means that unless we cool ethylene to 10 above zero, carbon dioxide to 32, nitrous oxide to 53, and acetylene to 57, we cannot liquefy them. These are quite ordinary temperatures; and you notice that that given for ethylene is only a little below our winter temperature. Hence, Faraday was able to liquefy all these gases because the temperatures of liquefaction required for them are temperatures easily reached. But now we come to nitrogen monoxide-a familiar gas to the chemist; and we see from the table that it is necessary to cool this gas down to 93 below the zero of Centigrade in order to liquefy it. So when we come to marsh gas the required temperature is-100"; that of oxygen.-119; of carbon monoxide.-140; of nitrogen.--146; and of hydrogen.-240." Faraday never dreamed of obtaining any of these low temperatures; and yet that is the condit.ion--that all these gases must he cooled down to these respective temperatures in order that they can be liquefied. These temperatures are called critical temperatures: they are the temperatures constituting the dividing line between more

Product details

  • Paperback | 836 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 42mm | 1,465g
  • United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 123697624X
  • 9781236976246