Scientific American; Supplement Volume 26

Scientific American; Supplement Volume 26

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1888 edition. Excerpt: ...which would be more tangible to Parisians, and, no doubt, to those who have been there, it maybe said that this quantity of sugar is equal to eight times the mass of the towers of Notre Dame. It has been proposed to estimate the relative civilization of communities by the consumption of certain commodities; so, for instance, Liebig says: "The quantity of soap consumed by a nation would be no inaccurate measure whereby to estimate its wealth and civilization." If these attempts of political economists are not altogether futile, the consumption of paper, I think, would be the truest measure of a nation's civilization. There we find that the United States come first with 550,000 tons, and Germany next with 240,000 tons. But it must be remembered that much depends on what paper is used for. Among the principal sugarconsuming nations of the world, England stands highest, with 72 lb. per head and per annum; next are the United States with 44 lb., then follow France with 24, and Germany with 15 lb. Sugar is a general term applied by chemists to a number of neutral carbo-hydrates, possessing a more or less sweet taste, for the most part crystallizable and produced by the vital processes going on in certain plants and animals. The carbo-hydrates may be divided into three classes: sucroses, glucoses, and aniyloses. We call them carbo-hydrates inasmuch as they contain hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion to form water, united with carbon. According to Liebig, the whole of the carbon in plants is obtained from the at' mosphere. This was only an assertion, but the complete experimental proof required was furnished by Lawes and Gilbert in an experiment which lasted 44 years before a definite reply could be given. That the amount of carbon more

Product details

  • Paperback
  • 189 x 246 x 44mm | 1,529g
  • United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236930797
  • 9781236930798