Preface. The Academy of Athens and its role in the cultural and technological development of Greece; P.S. Theocaris. Research activities at the universities in relation to the industrial development of Greece; G. Parissakis. The impact of national research centers and science parks on the science policy of Greece; N. Katsaros. The NATO Science programme: outreach activity with cooperation partner countries; A.J. Hubier. Science policy in the transition period in Albania; V. Mara. Some controversial questions about the research and development in transition from centralized to free market economy (Albanian case); P.D. Skende. Science and technology management in Bulgaria; L. Vitoshka, G. Sotirov. Science in the Balkan countries: key policy issues; J.-E. Aubert. The main reform guidelines of the R&D institutional system; A. Toia, I. Roman. Specific programmes of research and technological development in Romania in the transition period; A. Voicila. Science and technology policy and research management in Turkey; OE. Kaymakcalan. Achievements in solid state electronics in the Moldova Republic; S. Radautsan. Achievements and prospects of photobiotechnology in Moldova; V.F. Rudic. Research management in the Netherlands. The research council mechanism; A.P. Plompen. Principles underlying the development of the US science enterprise; J.M. McCullough. Guidelines for science policy and research management in Armenia; Y.L. Sarkissyan. Information technology transfer in Armenian science; Yu. Shoukourian. `What does a market economy mean to technology transfer?'; R.E. Armit. Science and technology policy in Hungary; A. Havas. Outlook of the Slovak science and technology policy; F. Macasek. Science and technology policyin the 1990s: the case of the United Kingdom; M. Nedeva.