The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication

The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication

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"The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication" provides a thorough introduction to the field of microelectronic processing. Geared toward a wide audience, it may be used for upper-level undergraduate or first year graduate courses and as a handy reference for professionals. The text covers all the basic unit processes used to fabricate integrated circuits, including photolithography, plasma and reactive ion etching, ion implantation, diffusion, oxidation, evaporation, vapor phase epitaxial growth, sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition. Advanced processing topics such as rapid thermal processing, non-optical lithography, molecular beam epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapor deposition are also presented. The physics and chemistry of each process is introduced along with descriptions of the equipment used for the manufacturing of integrated circuits. The text also discusses the integration of these processes into common technologies such as CMOS, double poly bipolar, and GaAs MESFETs. Complexity/performance tradeoffs are evaluated along with a description of the current state-of-the-art devices. Each chapter includes sample problems with solutions. The text makes use of the process simulation package SUPREM to demonstrate impurity profiles of practical interest. The new edition includes complete chapter coverage of MEMS including: Fundamentals of Mechanics, Stress in Thin Films, Mechanical to Electrical Transduction, Mechanics of Common MEMS Devices, Bulk Micromachining Etching Techniques, Bulk Micromachining Process Flow, Surface Micromachining Basics, Surface Micromachining Process Flow, MEMS Actuators, and High Aspect Ratio Microsystems Technology (HARMST).show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 624 pages
  • 188 x 238.8 x 33mm | 1,111.31g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 2nd Revised edition
  • numerous halftones, tables, figures and line drawings
  • 0195136055
  • 9780195136050
  • 1,644,338

Table of contents

PART I: OVERVIEW AND MATERIALS; 1. An Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication; 1.1 Microelectronic Technologies -- A Simple Example; 1.2 Unit Processes and Technologies; 1.3 A Roadmap for the Course; 1.4 Summary; 2. Semiconductor Substrates; 2.1 Phase Diagrams and Solid Solubility; 2.2 Crystallography and Crystal Structure; 2.3 Crystal Defects; 2.4 Czochralski Growth; 2.5 Bridgman Growth of GaAs; 2.6 Float Zone Growth; 2.7 Water Preparation and Specifications; 2.8 Summary and Future Trends; Problems; References; PART II: UNIT PROCESSING I: HOT PROCESSING AND ION IMPLANTATION; 3. Diffusion; 3.1 Fick's Diffusion Equation in One Dimension; 3.2 Atomistic Models of Diffusion; 3.3 Analytic Solutions of Fick's Law; 3.4 Corrections to Simple Theory; 3.5 Diffusion Coefficients for Common Dopants; 3.6 Analysis of Diffused Profiles; 3.7 Diffusion in SiO2; 3.8 Diffusion Systems; 3.9 SUPREM Simulations of Diffusion Profiles; 3.10 Summary; Problems; References; 4. Thermal Oxidation; 4.1 The Deal-Grove Model of Oxidation; 4.2 The Linear and Parabolic Rate Coeffients; 4.3 The Initial Oxidation Regime; 4.4 The Structure of SiO2; 4.5 Oxide Characterization; 4.6 The Effects of Dopants During Oxidation and Polysilicon Oxidation; 4.7 Oxidation Induced Stacking Faults; 4.8 Alternative Gate Insulations; 4.9 Oxidation Sytems; 4.10 SUPREM Oxidations; 4.11 Summary; Problems; References; 5. Ion Implantation; 5.1 Idealized Ion Implantation Systems; 5.2 Coulomb Scattering; 5.3 Vertical Projected Range; 5.4 Channeling and Lateral Projected Range; 5.5 Implantation Damage; 5.6 Shallow Junction Formation; 5.7 Buried Dielectrics; 5.8 Ion Implantation Systems -- Problems and Concerns; 5.9 Implanted Profiles Using SUPREM+; 5.10 Summary; Problems; References; 6. Rapid Thermal Processing; 6.1 Gray Body Radiation, Heat Exchange, and Optical Absorption; 6.2 High Density Optical Sources and Chamber Design; 6.3 Temperature Measurement; 6.4 Temperature Measurement; 6.4 Thermoplastic Stress; 6.5 Rapid Thermal Activation of Impurities; 6.6 Rapid Thermal Processing of Dielectrics; 6.7 Silicidation and Contact Formation; 6.8 Alternative Rapid Thermal Processing Systems; 6.9 Summary; Problems; References; PART III: UNIT PROCESSES 2: PATTERN TRANSFER; 7. Optical Lithography; 7.1 Lithography Overview; 7.2 Diffraction; 7.3 The Modulation Transfer Function and Optical Exposures; 7.4 Source Systems and Spatial Coherence; 7.5 Contact/Proximity Printers; 7.6 Projection Printers; 7.7 Advanced Mask Concepts; 7.8 Surface Reflections and Standing Waves; 7.9 Alignment; 7.10 Summary; Problems; References; 8. Photoresists; 8.1 Photoresist Types; 8.2 Organic Materials and Polymers; 8.3 Typical Reactions of DQN Positive Photoresist; 8.4 Contrast Curves; 8.5 The Critical Modulation Transfer Function; 8.6 Applying and Developing Photoresist; 8.7 Second Order Exposure Effects; 8.8 Advanced Photoresists and Photoresist Processes; 8.9 Summary; Problems; References; 9. Nonoptical Lithographic Techniques; 9.1 Interactions of High Energy Beams with Matter; 9.2 Direct Write Electron Beam Lithography Systems; 9.3 Direct Write Electron Beam Lithography Summary and Outlook; 9.4 X-Ray Sources; 9.5 Proximity X-Ray Exposure Systems; 9.6 Membrane Masks; 9.7 Projection X-Ray Lithography; 9.8 Projection Electron Beam Lithography (SCALPEL); 9.9 E-bean and X-Ray Resists; 9.10 Radiation Damage in MOS Devices; 9.11 Summary; Problems; References; PART IV: UNIT PROCESSES 3: THIN FILMS; 10. Vacuum Science and Plasmas; 10.1 The Kinetic Theory of Gasses; 10.2 Gas Flow and Conductance; 10.3 Pressure Ranges and Vacuum Pumps; 10.4 Vacuum Seals and Pressure Measurement; 10.5 The DC Glow Discharge; 10.6 RF Discharges; 10.7 High Density Plasmas; 10.8 Summary; Problems; References; 11. Etching; 11.1 Wet Etching; 11.2 Chemical Mechanical Publishing; 11.3 Basic Regimes of Plasma Etching; 11.4 High Pressure Plasma Etching; 11.5 Ion Milling; 11.6 Reactive Ion Etching; 11.7 Damage in Reative Ion Etching; 11.8 High Density Plasma (HDP) Etching; 11.9 Liftoff; 11.10 Summary; Problems; References; 12. Physical Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering; 12.1 Phase Diagrams: Sublimation and Evaporation; 12.2 Deposition Rates; 12.3 Step Coverage; 12.4 Evaporator Systems: Crucible Heating Techniques; 12.5 Multicomponent Films; 12.6 An Introduction to Sputtering; 12.7 Physics of Sputtering; 12.8 Deposition Rate: Sputter Yield; 12.9 High Density Plasma Sputtering; 12.10 Morphology and Step Coverage; 12.11 Sputtering Methods; 12.12 Sputtering of Specific Materials; 12.13 Stress in Deposited Layers; 12.14 Summary; Problems; References; 13. Chemcial Vapor Deposition; 13.1 A Simple CVD System for the Deposition of Silicon; 13.2 Chemical Equilibrium and the Law of Mass Action; 13.3 Gas Flow and Boundary Layers; 13.4 Evaluation of the Simple CVD System; 13.5 Atmospheric CVD of Dielectrics; 13.6 Low Pressure CVD of Dielectrics and Semiconductors in Hot Wall Systems; 13.7 Plasma Enhanced CVD of Dielectrics; 13.8 Metal CVD +; 13.9 Summary; Problems; References; 14. Exiptaxial Growth; 14.1 Water Cleaning and Native Oxide Removal; 14.2 The Thermodynamics of Vapor Phase Growth; 14.3 Surface Reactions; 14.4 Dopant Incorporation; 14.5 Defects in Epitaxial Growth; 14.6 Slective Growth; 14.7 Halide Transport GaAs Vapor Phase Epitaxy; 14.8 Incommensurate and Strained Layer Heterooepitaxy; 14.9 Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD); 14.10 Advanced Silicon Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth Techniques; 14.11 Molecular Beam Epitaxy Technology; 14.12 BCF Theory; 14.13 Gas Source MBE and Chemical Beam Epitaxy; 14.14 Summary; Problems; References; PART V: PROCESS INTEGRATION; 15. Device Isolation, Contacts, and Metallization; 15.1 Junction and Oxide Isolation; 15.2 LOCOAS Methods; 15.3 Trench Isolation; 15.4 Silicon on Insulator Isolation Techniques; 15.5 Semi-insulating Substrates; 15.6 Schottky Contacts; 15.7 Implanted Ohmic Contacts; 15.8 Alloyed Contacts; 15.9 Multilevel Metallization; 15.10 Planarization and Advanced Interconnect; 15.11 Summary; Problems; References; 16. CMOS Techniques; 16.1 Basic Long Channel Device Behavior; 16.2 Early MOS Technologies; 16.3 The Basic 3 um Technology; 16.4 Device Scaling; 16.5 Hot Carrier Effects and Drain Engineering; 16.6 Processing for Robust Oxides; 16.7 Latchup; 16.8 Shallow Source/Drains and Tailored Channel Doping; 16.9 Summary; Problems; References; 17. GaAs Technologies; 17.1 Basic MESFET Operation; 17.2 Basic MESFET Technology; 17.3 Digital Technologies; 17.4 MMC Technologies; 17.5 MODFETs; 17.6 Optoelectronic Devices; 17.7 Summary; Problems; References; 18. Silicon Bipolar Techniques; 18.1 Review of Bipolar Devices -- Ideal and Quasi-ideal Behavior; 18.2 Second Order Effects; 18.3 Performance of BJTs; 18.4 Early Bipolar Processes; 18.5 Advaned Bipolar Processes; 18.6 Hot Electron Effects in Bipolar Transitions; 18.7 BiCMOS; 18.8 Analog Bipolar Technolgies; 18.9 Summary; Problems; References; 19. MEMS (co-authored with G. Cibuzar, University of Minnesota); 19.1 Fundamentals of Mechanics; 19.2 Stress in Thin Films; 19.3 Mechanical to Electrical Transduction; 19.4 Mechanics of Common MEMS Devices; 19.5 Bulk Micromachining Etching Techniques; 19.6 Bulk Micromachining Process Flow; 19.7 Surface Micromachining Basics; 19.8 Surface Micromachining Process Flow; 19.9 MEMS Actuators; 19.10 High Aspect Ratio Microsystems Technology (HARMST); 19.11 Summary; Problems; References; 20. Integrated Circuit Manufacturing; 20.1 Yield Prediction and Yield Tracking; 20.2 Particle Control; 20.3 Statistical Process Control; 20.4 Full Factorial Experiments and ANOVA; 20.5 Design of Experiments; 20.6 Computer Integrated Manufacturing; 20.7 Summary; Problems; References; APPENDICES; I. Acronyms and Common Symbols; II. Properties of Selected Semiconductor Materials; III. Physical Constants; IV. Conversion Factors; V. The Complimentary Error Function; VI. F Values; VII. SUPREM Commands; Indexshow more

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