The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication

The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication

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The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication provides an introduction to microelectronic processing. Geared towards a wide audience, it may be used as a textbook for both first year graduate and upper level undergraduate courses and as a handy reference for professionals. The text covers all the basic unit processes used to fabricate integrated circuits including photolithography, plasma and reactive ion etching, ion implantation, diffusion, oxidation, evaporation, vapour phase epitaxial growth, sputtering and chemical vapour deposition. Advanced processing topics such as rapid thermal processing, nonoptical lithography, molecular beam epitaxy, and metal organic chemical vapour deposition are also presented. The physics and chemistry of each process is introduced along with descriptions of the equipment used for the manufacturing of integrated circuits. The text also discusses the integration of these processes into common technologies such as CMOS, double poly bipolar, and GaAs MESFETs. Complexity/performance tradeoffs are evaluated along with a description of the current state-of-the-art devices. Each chapter includes sample problems with solutions. The book also makes use of the process simulation package SUPREM to demonstrate impurity profiles of practical interest.show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 551 pages
  • 190.5 x 236.22 x 20.32mm | 1,111.3g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • halftones, line figures and tables throughout, bibliography
  • 0195105087
  • 9780195105087

Table of contents

Preface. Section I Overview and Materials. 1: Overview of Semiconductor Fabrication. 1.1: Introduction. 1.2: Layered Technologies: A Simple Example. 1.3: Unit Processes. 1.4: Technologies Overview. 1.5: A Roadmap for the Course. 2: Semiconductor Substrates. 2.1: Phase Diagrams and Solid Solubility. 2.2: Crystallography and Crystal Structure. 2.3: Crystal Defects. 2.4: Czochralski Growth. 2.5: Bridgman Growth of GaAs. 2.6: Float-Zone Growth. 2.7: Wafer Preparation and Specifications. 2.8: Summary and Future Trends. Section II Unit Process I: Hot Processing and Ion Implantation. 3: Diffusion. 3.1: Fick's Diffusion Equation in One Dimension. 3.2: Atomistic Models of Diffusion. 3.3: Analytic Solutions of Fick's Law. 3.4: Corrections to the iSimple asdf;. 3.5: Diffusion Codefficients for Common Dopants. 3.6: Analysis of Diffused Profiles. 3.7: Diffusion in SiO2. 3.8: Diffusion Systems. 3.9: SUPREM Simulations of Diffusion Profiles. 3.10: Summary. 4: Thermal Oxidation. 4.1: The Deal-Grove Model of Oxidation. 4.2: The Linear and Parabolic Rate Coefficients. 4.3: The Initial Oxidiation Regime. 4.4: The Structure of SiO2. 4.5: Oxide Characterization. 4.6: The Effects of Dopants on Oxidation and Polysilicon Oxidatation. 4.7: Oxidation Induced Stacking Faults. 4.8: Alternative Thermal Dielectrics. 4.9: Oxidation Systems. 4.10: SUPREM III Oxidations. 4.11: Summary. 5: Ion Implantation. 5.1: Idealized Ion Implant Systems. 5.2: Coulomb Scattering. 5.3: Vertical Projection Range. 5.4: Channeling and lteral Projected Range. 5.5: Implantation Damage. 5.6: Shallow Junction Formation. 5.7: Buried Dielectrics. 5.8: Ion Implant Systems - Problems and Concerns. 5.9: Implanted Profiles Using SUPREM III. 5.10: Summary. 6: Rapid Thermal Processing. 6.1: Gray Body Radiation, Heat Exchange and Optical Absorption. 6.2: High Intensity Optical Sources and the Reflecting Cavity. 6.3: Temperature Measurement. 6.4: Thermoplastic Stress. 6.5: Rapid Thermal Activation of Impurities. 6.6: Rapid Thermal Processing of Dielectrics. 6.7: Silicidation and Contact Formation. 6.8: Advanced Systems. 6.9: Summary. Section III Unit Processes 2: Pattern Transfer. 7: Optical Exposure Tools. 7.1: Lithography Overview. 7.2: Diffraction. 7.3: The Modulation Transfer Function and Optical Exposures. 7.4: Source Systems and Spatial Coherence. 7.5: Contact/Proximity Printers. 7.6: Projection Printers. 7.7: Advanced Mask Concepts. 7.8: Surface Reflections and Standing Waves. 7.9: Alignment. 7.10: Summary. 8: Photoresists. 8.1: Photoresist Types. 8.2: Organic Materials and Polymers. 8.3: Typical Reactions of DQN Positive Photoresists. 8.4: Contrast Curves. 8.5: The Critical Modultaion Transfer Function. 8.6: Applying and Developing Photoresist. 8.7: Second Order Exposure Effects. 8.8: Advanced Photoresists and Photoresist Processes. 8.9: Summary. 9: Nonoptical Lithographic Techniques. 9.1: Interaction of a High Energy Beam With Matter. 9.2: Electron Beam Lithography Systems. 9.3: Electron Beam Lithography Summary and Outlook. 9.4: X-Ray Sources. 9.5: X-Ray Exposure Systems. 9.6: X-Ray Masks. 9.7: Summary and Outlook for X-Ray Lithography. 9.8: E-Beam and X-Ray Resists. 9.9: Radiation Damage in MOS Devices. 9.10: Summary. 10: Vacuum Science and Plasmas. 10.1: The Kinetic Theory of Gases. 10.2: Gas Flow and Conductance. 10.3: Pressure Ranges and Vacuum Pumps. 10.4: Vacuum Seals and Pressure Measurement. 10.5: The DC Glow Discharge. 10.6: RF Discharge. 10.7: Magnetically Enhanced and ECR Plasmas. 10.8: Radiation from Accelerated Charged Particles. 10.9: Summary. 11: Etching. 11.1: Wet Etching. 11.2: Basic Regimes of Plasma Etching. 11.3: High Pressure Plasma Etching. 11.4: Ion Milling. 11.5: Reactive Ion Etching. 11.6: Damage in Reactive Ion Etching. 11.7: Magnetically Enhaned Reactive Ion Etch (MERIE) Systems. 11.8: Lift Off. 11.9: Summary. Section IV Unit Processing 3: Thin Film Deposition and Epitaxial Growth. 12: Physical Deposition: Evaporation and Sputtering. 12.1: Phase Diagrams: Sublimation and Evaporation. 12.2: Deposition Rates. 12.3: Step Coverage. 12.4: Evaporator Systems: Crucible Heating Techniques. 12.5: Multicomponent Films. 12.6: An Introduction to Sputtering. 12.7: Physics of Sputtering. 12.8: Deposition Rate: Ion Yield. 12.9: Magnetron Sputtering. 12.10: Morphology and Step Coverage. 12.11: Sputtering Methods. 12.12: Sputtering of Specific Materials. 12.13: Stress in Deposited Layers. 12.14: Summary. 13: Chemical Vapor Deposition. 13.1: Types of Chemical Reactions. 13.2: Chemical Equilibrium and the Law of Mass Action. 13.3: Gas Flow and Boundary Layers. 13.4: CVD Process Requirements. 13.5: Low Pressure CVD Processes. 13.6: Plasma Enhanced CVD. 13.7: Photon Assisted and Laser Induced CVD. 13.8: Characterization of CVD Dielectrics. 13.9: Metal CVD. 13.10: Summary. 14: Exitaxial Growth. 14.1: Wafer Cleaning and Native Oxide Removal. 14.2: The Thermodynamics of Growth. 14.3: Surface Reactions. 14.4: Dopant Incorporation. 14.5: Defects in Epitaxial Growth. 14.6: Selective Growth. 14.7: Halide Transport GaAs Vapor Phase Epitaxy. 14.8: Incommensurate and Strained Layer Heteroepitaxy. 14.9: Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). 14.10: Advanced Silicon Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth Techniques. 14.11: Molecular Beam Epitaxy Technology. 14.12: BCF Theory. 14.13: Gas Source MBE and Chemical Beam Epitaxy. 14.14: Summary. Section V Process Integration. 15: Device Isolation, Contacts, and Metalization. 15.1: Junction and Oxide Isolation. 15.2: LOCOS Methods. 15.3: Trench Isolation. 15.4: Silicon on Insulator Isolation Techniques. 15.5: Semi-insulation Substrates. 15.6: Schottky Contacts. 15.7: Implanted Ohmic Contacts. 15.8: Alloyed Contacts. 15.9: Multilevel Metallization. 15.10: Planarization. 15.11: Summary. 16: CMOS Process Flows. 16.1: Basic Long Channel Device Behavior. 16.2: Early MOS Technologies. 16.3: The Basic Three Micron Technology. 16.4: Device Scaling. 16.5: Hot Carrier Effects and Drain Engineering. 16.6: Latchup. 16.7: Summary. 17: GaAs FET Technologies. 17.1: MESFET Device Operation. 17.2: Basic MESFET Technology. 17.3: Digital Technologies. 17.4: MMIC Technologies. 17.5: MODFETs. 17.6: Summary. 18: Silicon Bipolar Techniques. 18.1: Review of Bipolar Devices - Ideal and Quasi Ideal Behavior. 18.2: Second Order Effects. 18.3: Performance of BJT's. 18.4: Early Bipolar Processes. 18.5: Advance Bipolar Processes. 18.6: Hot Electron Effects in Bipolar Transistors. 18.7: BiCMOS. 18.8: Analog Bipolar Techniques. 18.9: Summary. 19: Integrated Circuit Manufacturing. 19.1: Yield and Yield Tracking. 19.2: Particle Control. 19.3: Statistical Process Control. 19.4: Full Factorial Experiments and ANOVA. 19.5: Design of Experiments. 19.6: Computer Integrated Manufacturing. 19.7: Summary. Appendices. I: List of Symbols and Acronyms. II: Properties of Selected Semiconductor Materials. III: Physical Constants. IV: Conversion Factors. V: The Complimentary Error Function. VI: F Valuesshow more

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