The Roorkee Treatise on Civil Engineering in India Volume 1

The Roorkee Treatise on Civil Engineering in India Volume 1

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1878 edition. Excerpt: ...before it is taken up to set out another length. Or, what is much better, the line may be marked either throughout its own length, or at regular intervals by " nicking out," or by what in India is called making a daghbel, which consists in notching the ground along the line by means of aphdord, to a depth depending on the nature of the soil, the notch being less easily obliterated in hard, than in soft, soil. When a square or right-angle has to be set out on the ground, as in digging the foundations for square buildings, or for forming square ponds or reservoirs, it may be done by the surveyor's cross, or by a theodolite; first directed to a picketstaff placed in the direction of one line or side, and then on turning the instrument a quarter round or 90, the position of a second staff will be obtained; and the vertex of the angle will be at that point indicated by a plummet let fall from the centre of the instrument. The most usual method, however, of setting out rightangles on the ground, is by an instrument usually possessed by workmen, or if not, that is easily made, called a ground square. It is merely two straight-edged strips of board about five or six feet long, the two ends of which are so united together as to form a right-angle, (as in figure, ) and they arc held in the position by another similar strip nailed diagonally upon the other two. To use such a square for setting out a right-angle, strain a line ab in the direction of one of the required sides. Fix the point where the rightangle is to occur in that line, by driving a stake as at c, and fix another line to it. Then apply one side of the square close to, or parallel to the first line, letting the point of the square coincide with the stake; strain the other line more

Product details

  • Paperback | 188 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 10mm | 345g
  • Miami Fl, United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 123650223X
  • 9781236502230