Acknowledgements. Introduction. Biotechnology in Countering Biological and Toxin Weapons: An Overview; A. Kelle, M.R. Dando, K. Nixdorff, G.S. Pearson. Section I: Political and Economic Dimensions of Countering BTW Agents and Strengthening the BTW Control Regime. Dealing With a Headache: Three Scenarios and Two Dilemmas; H. Muller. Countering Biological Warfare: An Overview; G.S. Pearson. Lessons of the Chemical Weapons Convention for the BTWC Protocol; A. Kelle, J. Matousek. Biotechnology and the Strengthening of the BTWC: The View from West European Industry; R. van Sloten. Strengthening the BTWC through R&D Restructuring: The case of the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology `VECTOR'; L.S. Sandakhchiev, S.V. Netesov. Dissolution of the Sovjet Union, Introduction of a Market Economy and the Future BTWC Compliance Protocol: Impact on the Russian Biotechnology Industry; J. Compton. Section II: Biotechnology in BTW Agent Detection: Underlying Technologies. The Potential of Different Biotechnology Methods in BTW Agent Detection. Antibody Based Methods; P. Sveshnikov. The Potential of Different Biotechnology Methods in BTW Agent Detection. DNA Methods: Gene Probes; D. Leslie. The Role of Biotechnology in BTW Agent Detection. DNA Methods: Polymerase Chain Reaction; K. Nixdorff, A.G. Prilipov. Detection of Biological Agents and Biosensor Design; J.J. Valdes, J.P. Chambers. Section III: Biotechnology and BTW Agent Detection in Different Environments. Detecting BTW Agents on the Battlefield; H. Garrigue. Detecting Biological Terrorism. Evaluating the Technologies; G. Eifried. Detecting Biological and Toxin Weapon Agents in an Inspection Environment; G.S. Pearson. Section IV: The Role of Biotechnology in the Pre-Exposure Treatment of BTW Agents. Possibilities and Limitations of Vaccination; K. Nixdorff. The Development of an Oral Vaccine Against Anthrax; N.D. Zegers, et al. Vaccine Production; J. Melling. Section V: The Role of Biotechnology in Diagnosis and Identification of BTW Agents. The Role of Biotechnology in Protection against BTW Agents -- Overview from a Medical Point of View and Identification of the Symptoms; G. Berensci, G. Faludi. Medical Countermeasures to Biological Warfare Agents; D.R. Franz. Section VI: The Role of Biotechnology in Protection Against BTW Agents: Post-Exposure Treatment. Treatment of Mass Casualties under Worst Case Assumptions; S.-A. Persson. The Post Exposure Prophylactic Measures Against Viral BTW Agents; S.V. Netesov. Search of Biotechnology-based Decontaminants for C/BW Agents; R. Dierstein, H.-U. Glaeser, A. Richardt. Section VII: The Impact of Biotechnology on Politico-Military and Normative Efforts to Counter BTW Agents. Biotechnology and Politico-Military Responses to BTW Agents; M.R. Dando. Biotechnology and the Development of Norms Against BTW Agents; A. Kelle. Index.