Resources of the Earth : Origin, Use, and Environmental Impact
Extensively illustrated and up-to-date, this book explores the nature and critical issues of all major types of earth resources - energy, metallic, nonmetallic, water and soil - and the impacts that resource usage has on the earth environment. It provides geologic background of resource formation and occurrence of most of the various types of resources; offers an international perspective; discusses resources not only from the scientific point of view, but also from the point of economic, political, historical considerations; and considers how the extraction and use of the resources creates impacts - local or global, immediate or delayed, visible or invisible and singular or cumulative.
- Hardback | 520 pages
- 212 x 278 x 26mm | 1,360.79g
- 13 Mar 2001
- Pearson Education (US)
- United States
- 3rd edition
- illustrations, glossary, index
Table of contents
(NOTE: Most chapters begin with an Introduction and conclude with Internet Information Sources.)I. INTRODUCTION AND THE ORIGINS OF RESOURCES. Modern Society and Earth Resources: The Complex Network. The Changing World. Interdependence and Complexity. The Earth-Our Only Home. The Formation of Earth Resources and Plate Tectonics.1. Minerals: The Foundations of Society. The World's Resource Needs. Population Growth: The Force That Drives Resource Consumption. Materials We Use. Consequences of Resource Exploitation. Resources, Reserves, and Ores. Where Do Earth Resources Come From? Box 1.1 CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect. Box 1.2 The Lessons of Busang and Bre-X.2. The Origins of Earth Resources. Plate Tectonics. Subsurface Igneous and Metamorphic Processes. Surface Processes. Shallow Subsurface and Diagenetic Processes. Marine Processes. Conclusions. Box 2.1 Fluid Inclusions. Box 2.2 Placer Deposits: Panning Gold and Mining Gravel. Box 2.3 Seabed Ownership.II. HISTORY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF RESOURCE USAGE. Historical Changes. Environmental Impacts.3. Earth's Resources through History. Resources of Antiquity. From Rome to the Renaissance. Global Exploration and Colonialism. Humans and Metals. Modern Trends in Resource Usage. Global Distribution and the International Flow of Resources. Box 3.1 The California Gold Rush. Box 3.2 The Industrial Revolution.4. Environmental Impacts of Resource Exploitation and Use. How Exploiting Resources Affects the Environment. How Using Resources Affects the Environment. Disposal or Recycling of Industrial and Domestic Waste Products. Box 4.1 Acid Rain. Box 4.2 Radon. Box 4.3 The Move to Recycle.III. ENERGY. Fossil Fuels. Nuclear Energy. Alternative Energy.5. Energy from Fossil Fuels. Energy Units. The Changing Use of Energy. Fossil Fuels. Future Fossil Fuel Resources. Box 5.1 The Persian Gulf War 1990-1991: Oil, Politics, Environment. Box 5.2 The United States Strategic Petroleum Reserves. Box 5.3 Coal Bed Methane. Box 5.4 Plastics.6. Energy for the Future-Nuclear Power and Other Possible Alternatives. Nuclear Power-Uranium and Nuclear Fission. Alternative Energy Sources. The Future. Box 6.1 United Stated Nuclear Waste Storage-Yucca Mountain. Box 6.2 Chernobyl. Box 6.3 Hydroelectric Power.IV. METALS. History. Types and Abundances of Metals.7. Abundant Metals. Metals and Their Properties. The Nature of Ore Deposits. Iron: The Backbone of Industry. Manganese. Aluminum, the Metal of the Twenty-First Century. Titanium. Magnesium. Silicon. Abundant Metals in the Future. Box 7.1 The Iron Ranges. Box 7.2 Making and Recycling Automobiles. Box 7.3 The Values of Metals.8. The Geochemically Scare Metals. Production of the Geochemically Scarce Metals. Distribution of Scarce Metals in the Crust. Ore Minerals of the Scarce Metals. Classification of the Scarce Metals by Usage. The Ferro-Alloy Metals. The Base Metals. The Precious Metals. The Special Metals. Box 8.1. Lead in the Environment. Box 8.2 More Than Zinc from a Zinc Mine. Box 8.3 Gold Extraction Using Mercury and Cyanide.V. FERTILIZER, CHEMICAL, CONSTRUCTION, AND INDUSTRIAL RESOURCES. Construction and Industrial Minerals. Fertilizer and Chemical Minerals.9. Fertilizer and Chemical Minerals. Minerals for Fertilizers. Historical Overview of Fertilizers. Nitrogen. Phosphorus. Potassium. Sulfur. Minerals for Chemicals. Fertilizer and Chemical Minerals in the Future. Box 9.1 The Early Potash Industry and U.S. Patent Number 1. Box 9.2 Lake Peigneur, Where Oil and Salt Did Not Mix. Box. 9.3 Minerals in Foods, Medicines, and Cosmetics.10. Building Materials and Other Industrial Minerals. Untreated Rock Products. Treated Rock Products. Other Major Industrial Minerals. Gemstones. The Future for Building Materials and Industrial Minerals. Box 10.1 Marble for the Masters. Box 10.2 What Is This Page Made Of? Box 10.3 Synthetic Diamonds.VI. WATER AND SOIL FOR LIFE SUPPORT. Water. Soil.11. Water Resources. The Global Distribution of Water. Our Use of Water. Potential Water Problems. Large-Scale Transportation and Diversion Systems. Box 11.1 Restoring a River: The Kissimmee. Box 11.2 Water for New York City. Box 11.3 Water in the Middle East. Box 11.4 The Death of a Lake-The Aral Sea.12. Soil as a Resource. Soil Formation and Distribution. Soil Type and Land Use. Erosion and Deterioration of Soils. Conservation-The Keyword for Soil Science. Box 12.1 How Fast Does Soil Form? Box 12.2 The Dust Bowl. Box 12.3 Selenium Poisoning in the San Joaquin Valley. Box 12.4 Deforestation, Soil Erosion, and the Destruction of Environmental Assets.13. Future Resources. Future Mineral Resources. Metals for the Future. Fertilizers and Chemicals for the Future. Building and Industrial Materials for the Future. Energy for the Future. The Future of Alternative Energy Sources. Water and Soil for the Future. Technology and Innovation.Appendix: Calendar of Earth Resources Events. Glossary. Index.