Research Paper : Process, Form, Content
The RESEARCH PAPER: FORM AND CONTENT is intended as a guide for students as they prepare and write research papers.
- Paperback | 336 pages
- 149.9 x 226.1 x 15.2mm | 408.24g
- 31 Jan 1999
- Cengage Learning, Inc
- Heinle & Heinle Publishers Inc.,U.S.
- Florence, United States
- 8th Revised edition
Table of contents
1. STARTING THE RESEARCH PAPER. Kinds of Research. Differences Among a Report, A Documented Paper, and a Research Paper. What a Research Paper Is. What a Research Paper Is Not. Length of Research Papers. Five Steps to a Research Paper: Choosing the Subject, Collecting Information, Evaluating Materials, Organizing Ideas, Writing the Paper. Why a Research Paper is Important. Who Reads Research Papers - And Why. Managing Your Time. Keeping a Process Log. 2. CHOOSING A GENERAL TOPIC. The Terms "Topic" and "Subject". Qualities of a Good Topic. Topics to Avoid. Assigned Topics. Field-of-Study Topics: Take Stock of What You Already Know, Make Use of Printed and Electronic Aids, Build From Your Own Interests, Surf the Internet. Free-Choice Topics. Library Cataloging Customs: Classifications of Books, Contents of the Online Catalog, Individual Catalog Entries, Alphabetizing of Books and Periodicals. An Addendum: Double Submissions. InfoTrac College Edition Exercise. 3. NARROWING THE TOPIC. Some Limitations You Work Within: Length, Materials Available, Audience. Focusing on a Subject to Research: Freewriting, Free Association, Clustering, Subdividing, The Five Ws, Combined Method. Finding an Approach. Deciding on an Approach Before Being Well Informed About Your Subject: Examining or Analyzing, Evaluating or Criticizing, Comparing and Contrasting, Relating, Arguing or Persuading. Wording Your Approach: A Word of Caution. Choosing a Research Paper Title. InfoTrac College Edition Exercise. 4. SEARCHING FOR INFORMATION. Primary and Secondary Sources: Primary Sources, Secondary Sources. The What, Where, and How of Finding Information. Devising a Search Strategy: Print-on-Paper Resources, Electronic Resources, Nonprint Resources, The Search Strategy Record. Conventions for MLA-Style Preliminary (and Final) Citations: General Conventions, Conventions About the Author Unit, Conventions About the Title Unit, Conventions About the Publication Information Unit. Citing Specific Sources. Finding and Citing Print-on-Paper Resources: Encyclopedias, Bibliographies and Reference Books, Handbooks, Indexes, Government Publications, Other Sources of Print Information, Microforms. Finding and Citing Electronic Resources: Computer Connections, Online Catalogs for Books, The Internet, Computer Databases, CD-ROMs, Electronic Journals and Newsletters, Discussion Groups, Chat Lines, and Bulletin Boards. Finding and Citing Nonprint Resources: Three Units of Information in a Nonprint Preliminary Citation, Radio and TV Programs, Interviews, Lectures and Speeches, Questionnaires, Surveys, and Polls, Films, Filmstrips, and Slides, Videocassettes, Laser Discs, and DVDs, CDs, Audiotapes, and Other Audio Recordings. InfoTrac College Edition Exercise. 5. RECORDING INFORMATION. Writing Notes. Plagiarism-and How Not to Commit It: Of Words and Ideas-and Plagiarism, How Not to Plagiarize, Notes That Plagiarize, Notes That Don't Plagiarize. Common Knowledge. Reading to Take Notes: Previewing, Skimming, Scanning. Evaluation Source Materials: Before You Read, Look, or Listen, When You Read, Look, or Listen. Qualities of Good Notes: Legibility, Accuracy, Completeness. Kinds of Notes: Summary Notes, Paraphrase Notes, Direct Quotation Notes, Personal Comment Notes, Combination Notes. Number of Note Cards. Conventions for Writing Notes: Quotations, Words Omitted from a Quotation, Interpolations or Commentaries, Foreign Words and Phrases, Titles Within Quotations and Sources. A Note About Photocopies and Printouts. If You Use a Computer. InfoTrac College Edition Exercise. 6. ORGANIZING IDEAS. Reconsideration Time. Putting the Parts Together. What a Thesis Statement Is. What a Thesis Statement Is Not. How a Thesis Statement Evolves. How an Outline Evolves. Ways of Organizing Content: Time, Known to Unknown or Simple to Complex, Comparison and Contrast, General to Particular or Particular to General, Problem to Solution or Question to Answer, Cause to Effect or Effect to Cause. Relating Organization to Overall Approach. Visual Ordering -- Clustering and Mapping. Outlines: Content of Outlines, Forms of Outlines. Conventions for Outlines. Revising Outlines. Computer Aids to Outlining. A Final Check. InfoTrac College Edition Exercise. 7. WRITING YOUR PAPER. Reprise of Writing Preparation. What "Drafting" Means. Writing Style. Starting Your Paper: Good Openings, Bad Openings. Drafting the Body of Your Paper: Unity and Coherence, Adequate Support, Emphasis, Concreteness and Specificity. Integrating Resource Information: Examples of Well-Integrated Resource Information, Six Ways to Integrate Documented Information into the Text of a Research Paper. Recording and Punctuating Quotations: Short Prose Passages, Longer Prose Passages, Short Passages of Poetry, Longer Passages of Poetry, Drama. Comment Notes. Ending the Paper: Good Endings, Bad Endings. Revising and Editing Your Paper: Editing for Word Choice and Sentence Structure, Mechanics. Revising on a Computer. Selecting a Title: Characteristics of a Good Title, Kinds of Titles to Avoid, Conventions for Titles. InforTrac College Edition Exercise. 8. DOCUMENTING YOUR PAPER. When, Where, and How to Make Acknowledgements. Parenthetical Documentation: MLA (Modern Language Association): Conventions for Parenthetical Documentation, Punctuation and Spacing in Parenthetical Documentation, Identifying Sources in Parenthetical Documentation. Documenting Visuals: Illustrations, Maps, Charts, Graphs, and Tables. Using Comment Notes in Addition to Parenthetical Documentation. MLA Endnote Documentation: Differences Between Endnotes and Works Cited, First References in MLA-Style Endnotes: Books, First References in MLA-Style Endnotes: Periodicals, First References in MLA-Style Endnotes: Other Print Sources, First References in MLA-Style Endnotes: Electronic Sources, First References in MLA-Style Endnotes: Nonprint Sources, Subsequent References in MLA-Style Endnotes. InforTrac College Edition Exercise. 9. PREPARING THE WORKS CITED LIST (MLA FORM). What to Include: Conventions to Follow. Standard Forms for Works Cited: Entire Books, Portions of Books, Periodicals, Other Print Sources, Electronic Sources, Nonprint Sources. InfoTrac College Edition Exercise. 10. FINAL PRESENTATION --MLA STYLE. Manuscript Preparation and Proofreading. Word Processing/Typing. Page Numbering. First Page of the Research Paper Text (MLA). Outline. The Text (MLA Style). Illustrative Materials: Charts, Tables, Graphs, and Other Visuals. Comment Notes. Endnotes. Works Cited. Annotations. Appendix. Other Options: Preface, Statements of Purpose, Proposals, Synopses, and Abstracts. Fastening Pages. Sample Research Paper in MLA Format. InfoTrac College Edition Exercise. 11. APA AND OTHER STYLES. APA Format and Page Numbering. APA-Format Title Page. Conventions for APA Citations in the Text: Quotations Acknowledged in the Text. Comments and Documentation Notes. Appendixes and Other Materials. References in APA Format: Print Resources, Nonprint Resources, Electronic Resources. Other Research Documentation and Reference Systems: Footnotes, Between-Line Documentation, Full In-Text Documentation, Numbering Sources. Sample Research Paper in APA Format. InfoTrac College Edition Exercise. APPENDIX A: SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCE WORKS AVAILABLE IN LIBRARIES. General Reference Works. Science and Technology. Social Sciences. Humanities. Vocational Studies. APPENDIX B: REFERENCE WORDS AND ABBREVIATIONS. INDEX.