Reptile Biodiversity : Standard Methods for Inventory and Monitoring
From tiny, burrowing lizards to rainforest canopy-dwellers and giant crocodiles, reptile populations everywhere are changing. Yet government and conservation groups are often forced to make important decisions about reptile conservation and management based on inadequate or incomplete data. With contributions from nearly seventy specialists, this volume offers a comprehensive guide to the best methods for carrying out standardized quantitative and qualitative surveys of reptiles, while maximizing comparability of data between sites, across habitats and taxa, and over time. The contributors discuss each method, provide detailed protocols for its implementation, and suggest ways to analyze the data, making this volume an essential resource for monitoring and inventorying reptile abundance, population status, and biodiversity. "Reptile Biodiversity" covers topics including: terrestrial, marine, and aquatic reptiles; equipment recommendations and limitations; ethics of monitoring and inventory activities; statistical procedures; designing sampling programs; and, using PDAs in the field.
- Hardback | 424 pages
- 213.36 x 281.94 x 27.94mm | 1,542.21g
- 22 Jun 2012
- University of California Press
- Berkerley, United States
- 51 b/w photographs, 68 line illustrations, 38 tables
"Authoritative and comprehensive--provides an up-to-date description of the tool box of methods for inventorying and monitoring the diverse spectrum of reptiles. All biodiversity scientists will want to have it during project planning and as study progresses. A must for field biologists, conservation planners, and biodiversity managers."--Jay M. Savage, San Diego State University "Kudos to the editors and contributors to this book. From the perspective of a non-ecologist such as myself, who only occasionally needs to intensively sample a particular site or habitat, the quality and clarity of this book has been well worth the wait."--Jack W. Sites, Jr.
Table of contents
FIGURES xi TABLES xvi AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTOR xviii FOREWORD Rick Shine xxii PREFACE xxvi CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Mercedes S. Foster, Roy W. McDiarmid, and Neil Chernoff Setting the Stage Importance of Standardization Intended Audience CHAPTER 2. REPTILE DIVERSITY AND NATURAL HISTORY: AN OVERVIEW 8 Roy W. McDiarmid Introduction Turtles Crocodilians Lepidosaurs CHAPTER 3. STUDY DESIGN AND SAMPLING 49 Overview Robert N. Fisher and Milan Mitrovich The Value of Long-term Monitoring J. Whitfield Gibbons Know Your Organisms Joseph C. Mitchell Using Geographical Information Systems to Design Reptile Surveys Charles R. Peterson and John R. Lee Precautions for Quantitative Reptile Field Studies Lee-Ann C. Hayek CHAPTER 4. PLANNING AND ASSOCIATED DATA 117 Overview Mercedes S. Foster Climate Data and Seasonality Joseph C. Mitchell Describing Microhabitats Robert E. Lovich and Kim Gray-Lovich Diversity, Distribution Maps, and Atlas Production Ralph W. Axtell Automated Data Acquisition Michael E. Dorcas and Charles R. Peterson Handheld Computers for Digital Data Collection Carlton J. Rochester and Robert N. Fisher Databases, Metadata, and Integrated Data Management Christopher Brown and Robert N. Fisher Data quality Assurance and Quality Control Andrea Atkinson, Carlton J. Rochester, and Robert N. Fisher CHAPTER 5. FINDING AND CAPTURING REPTILES 183 Lee A. Fitzgerald Introduction General Considerations Detecting, Counting, and Sampling Squamates Contributed sections: Funnel Traps, Pitfall Traps, and Drift Fences Lee A. Fitzgerald and J. H. Yantis Specialized Trapping of Snakes over Large Areas D. Craig Rudolph Finding, Counting, and Catching Crocodiles Frank Mazzotti Collaboration with Local People for Sampling Reptiles Marcio Martins and Cristiano Nogueira CHAPTER 6. VOUCHER SPECIMENS 216 Robert P. Reynolds and Roy W. McDiarmid Introduction Field Identification Specimen repositories Sample size Specimen data Conclusions Appendix A. Preparing reptiles as scientific specimens Sean J. Berry Contributed section: Hemipenis preparation Christopher J. Raxworthy Appendix B. Collection and preservation of reptilian embryos Alan H. Savitzky, William A. Velhagen, Jr., and Neil Chernoff Appendix C. Field parasitology techniques for reptile surveys Scott L. Gardner, Robert N. Fisher, and Sean J. Berry Appendix D. Collecting and preserving tissues for biochemical analyses James A. Schulte II CHAPTER 7. TECHNIQUES FOR DIFFICULT-TO-SAMPLE HABITATS 311 Overview Robert E. Lovich 1. Rock-dwelling reptiles Robert E. Lovich and Aaron M. Bauer 2. Snake hibernacula and communal denning Robert N. Reed, Cameron A. Young, and Robert T. Zappalorti 3. Arboreal reptiles: Tree-trunk and canopy-dwelling species Indraneil Das 4. Swamp-dwelling crocodilians William E. Magnusson 5. Detecting and Capturing Turtles In Freshwater Habitats Richard C. Vogt 6. Alternative Methods For Sampling Freshwater Turtles Thomas S. B. Akre, John D.Willson, and Thomas P. Wilson 7. Sampling Marine And Estuarial Reptiles Harold K. Voris and John C. Murphy CHAPTER 8. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF TECHNIQUES AND VALIDATION 395 Gordon H. Rodda Comparison of Techniques Validation of Techniques And Assumptions CHAPTER 9. STANDARD TECHNIQUES FOR INVENTORY AND MONITORING 415 Selecting a Technique Craig Guyer and Gordon H. Rodda Techniques: 1. Complete Species Inventories Christopher J. Raxworthy, Natalia Ananjeva, and Nikolai L. Orlov 2. Road Riding Brian K. Sullivan 3. Visual Encounter Surveys Craig Guyer and Maureen A. Donnelly 4. Quadrat Sampling Harold F. Heatwole 5. Permanent Plots with Mark-recapture Craig Guyer and Maureen A. Donnelly 6. Transect Surveys, including Line Distance Robert E. Lovich, William K. Hayes, Henry Mushinsky, and Gordon H. Rodda 7. Pitfall-Trap Surveys Robert N. Fisher and Carlton J. Rochester 8. Sampling with Artificial Cover J. Steve Godley 9. Reptile Sign and Camera Traps Robert N. Fisher 10. Nest and Track Surveys Jack Frazier 11. Aerial Surveys for Marine Turtles Robert D. Kenney and C. Robert Shoop CHAPTER 10. PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF REPTILIAN BIODIVERSITY DATA 586 Chad L. Cross, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai L. Orlov, and Antonio W. Salas Introduction Biodiversity Measures Species Density and Continuously Distributed Data Species Accumulation Curves Rarefaction Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Diversity Making Inferences Based on Monitoring Data Analyzing Biodiversity Data Computer Programs for Analyses of Biodiversity Data CHAPTER 11. POPULATION SIZE AND DEMOGRAPHICS 615 Gordon H. Rodda Introduction Point estimates Dynamic Demography Contributed section: Relative Abundance in Snakes: A Case Study David A. Steen, Craig Guyer, and Lora L. Smith CHAPTER 12. MONITORING EXPLOITED SPECIES 722 Lee A. Fitzgerald Challenges Confronting Researchers Studying Exploited Species Trade Patterns of Exploited Species of Reptiles Natural History and Demographic Information from Hunted Animals Harvest Data, Hunter Effort, and Hunting Patterns Analysis and Interpretation of Exploitation Data Informed Conservation of Exploited Species when Data Are Lacking CHAPTER 13. WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? 744 Roy W. McDiarmid and Mercedes S. Foster Introduction Major Conservation Efforts Species Attributes Where We Are Today The Future STANDARD PROCEDURES 762 I. DEALING WITH LIVE REPTILES 763 Ethical Considerations in Working with Reptiles Gordon M. Burghardt Handling Live Reptiles Steven J. Beaupre and Harry W. Greene Anesthesia in Reptiles Dale DeNardo Standard Data from Live Specimens Patrick T. Gregory II. TECHNIQUES FOR MARKING REPTILES 810 Michael V. Plummer and John W. Ferner Introduction Identifying Marks and Photographs Permanent and Temporary Tags Tagging Different Reptile groups Morphological Modifications Color Marking Radiotelemetry Cautions and Recommendations III. DETERMINING AGE, SEX, AND REPRODUCTIVE CONDITION 834 Robert N. Reed and Anton D. Tucker Introduction Determining Sex Determining Age Determining Reproductive Condition APPENDICES 868 I. SELECTED INSTITUTIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT COLLECTIONS OF REPTILES 869 Mercedes S. Foster and Roy W. McDiarmid Introduction Natural history museums and other specimen repositories Directories of natural history museums and collections II. RELEVANT WEBSITES 882 TK Mercedes S. Foster Reptile & other websites of interest Computer Programs Vendors Equipment and Supplies Chemicals Telemetry Equipment LITERATURE CITED 900 INDEX TK ADDRESSES OF AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS 1111
"This volume will be useful for conservationists, managers, professional scientists and amateurs." Environment And Ecology "Authoritative and informative... A concise, thoughtful accumulation of field protocols and marking techniques." -- John M. Matter, Juniata College Frontiers Of Biogeography
About Craig Guyer
Roy W. McDiarmid is a Research Zoologist and Curator of Reptiles for the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center at the National Museum of Natural History. Mercedes S. Foster is a Research Zoologist and Curator of Birds for the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center at the National Museum of Natural History. Craig Guyer is Professor of Biological Sciences at Auburn University. J. Whitfield Gibbons is Professor of Ecology at the University of Georgia and former head of the Environmental Outreach and Education program at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Neil Chernoff is a scientist at the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.