The Rails 4 Way
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The Rails 4 Way

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Description

The "Bible" for Rails Development: Now Fully Updated for Rails 4.1





"When I read The Rails Way for the first time, I felt like I truly understood Rails for the first time."

-From the Foreword by Steve Klabnik



Ruby on Rails 4 is leaner, tighter, and even more valuable to professional web developers. More than ever, it helps you focus on what matters most: delivering business value via clean and maintainable code.



The Rails (TM) 4 Way is the only comprehensive, authoritative guide to delivering production-quality code with Rails 4. Kevin Faustino joins pioneering Rails developer Obie Fernandez to illuminate the entire Rails 4 API, including its most powerful and modern idioms, design approaches, and libraries. They present extensive new and updated content on security, performance, caching, Haml, RSpec, Ajax, the Asset Pipeline, and more.



Through detailed code examples, you'll dive deep into the Rails 4 code base, discover why Rails is designed as it is, and learn how to make it do exactly what you want. Proven in dozens of production systems, this book's techniques will maximize your productivity and help you build more successful solutions. You'll want to keep this guide by your computer-you'll refer to it constantly.



This guide will help you



Build powerful, scalable REST-compliant APIs
Program complex program flows using Action Controller
Represent models, relationships, CRUD operations, searches, validation, callbacks, and more
Smoothly evolve application database schema via Migrations
Apply advanced Active Record techniques: single-table inheritance, polymorphic models, and more
Create visual elements with Action View and partials
Optimize performance and scalability with view caching
Master the highly productive Haml HTML templating engine
Make the most of Rails' approach to session management
Secure your systems with Rails 4's improved authentication and authorization
Resist SQL Injection, XSS, XSRF, and other attacks
Extend Rails with popular gems and plugins, and learn to write your own
Integrate email services with Action Mailer
Use Ajax via Rails 4 support for unobtrusive JavaScript
Improve responsiveness with background processing
Leverage Asset Pipeline to simplify development, improve perceived performance, and reduce server burdens
Accelerate implementation and promote maintainability with RSpec
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Product details

  • Paperback | 880 pages
  • 180 x 233 x 29mm | 1,090g
  • Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc
  • New Jersey, United States
  • English
  • 3rd edition
  • 0321944275
  • 9780321944276
  • 359,338

Table of contents

Foreword by Steve Klabnik xxxix

Foreword to the Previous Edition by David Heinemeier Hansson xli

Foreword to the Previous Edition by Yehuda Katz xliii

Introduction xlv

Acknowledgments li

About the Authors liii





Chapter 1: Rails Environments and Configuration 1



1.1 Bundler 2 1.2 Startup and Application Settings 9

1.3 Development Mode 18

1.4 Test Mode 22

1.5 Production Mode 23

1.6 Configuring a Database 26

1.7 Configuring Application Secrets 27

1.8 Logging 29

1.9 Conclusion 35



Chapter 2: Routing 37



2.1 The Two Purposes of Routing 38

2.2 The routes.rb File 39

2.3 Route Globbing 51

2.4 Named Routes 53

2.5 Scoping Routing Rules 57

2.6 Listing Routes 60

2.7 Conclusion 61



Chapter 3: REST, Resources, and Rails 63



3.1 REST in a Rather Small Nutshell 63 3.2 Resources and Representations 64

3.3 REST in Rails 65

3.4 Routing and CRUD 66

3.5 The Standard RESTful Controller Actions 69

3.6 Singular Resource Routes 73

3.7 Nested Resources 74

3.8 Routing Concerns 78

3.9 RESTful Route Customizations 79

3.10 Controller-Only Resources 83

3.11 Different Representations of Resources 86

3.12 The RESTful Rails Action Set 88

3.13 Conclusion 92



Chapter 4: Working with Controllers 95



4.1 Rack 96

4.2 Action Dispatch: Where It All Begins 99

4.3 Render unto View... 102

4.4 Additional Layout Options 111

4.5 Redirecting 111

4.6 Controller/View Communication 115

4.7 Action Callbacks 116

4.8 Streaming 121

4.9 Variants 126

4.10 Conclusion 127



Chapter 5: Working with Active Record 129



5.1 The Basics 130 5.2 Macro-Style Methods 131

5.3 Defining Attributes 133

5.4 CRUD: Create, Read, Update, and Delete 138

5.5 Database Locking 151

5.6 Where Clauses 155

5.7 Connections to Multiple Databases in Different Models 165

5.8 Using the Database Connection Directly 167

5.9 Other Configuration Options 171

5.10 Conclusion 171



Chapter 6: Active Record Migrations 173



6.1 Creating Migrations 173

6.2 Data Migration 187

6.3 schema.rb 189

6.4 Database Seeding 190

6.5 Database-Related Rake Tasks 191

6.6 Conclusion 194



Chapter 7: Active Record Associations 195



7.1 The Association Hierarchy 195 7.2 One-to-Many Relationships 196

7.3 The belongs_to Association 205

7.4 The has_many Association 214

7.5 Many-to-Many Relationships 222

7.6 One-to-One Relationships 233

7.7 Working with Unsaved Objects and Associations 236

7.8 Association Extensions 238

7.9 The CollectionProxy Class 239

7.10 Conclusion 240



Chapter 8: Validations 241



8.1 Finding Errors 241

8.2 The Simple Declarative Validations 242

8.3 Common Validation Options 253

8.4 Conditional Validation 255

8.5 Short-Form Validation 256

8.6 Custom Validation Techniques 258

8.7 Skipping Validations 260

8.8 Working with the Errors Hash 261

8.9 Testing Validations with Shoulda 262

8.10 Conclusion 262



Chapter 9: Advanced Active Record 263



9.1 Scopes 263 9.2 Callbacks 268

9.3 Calculation Methods 278

9.4 Single-Table Inheritance (STI) 280

9.5 Abstract Base Model Classes 286

9.6 Polymorphic has_many Relationships 287

9.7 Enums 290

9.8 Foreign-Key Constraints 292

9.9 Modules for Reusing Common Behavior 292

9.10 Modifying Active Record Classes at Runtime 297

9.11 Using Value Objects 299

9.12 Nonpersisted Models 302

9.13 PostgreSQL Enhancements 304

9.14 Conclusion 311



Chapter 10: Action View 313



10.1 Layouts and Templates 314

10.2 Partials 322

10.3 Conclusion 329



Chapter 11: All about Helpers 331



11.1 ActiveModelHelper 331 11.2 AssetTagHelper 338

11.3 AtomFeedHelper 346

11.4 CacheHelper 348

11.5 CaptureHelper 348

11.6 CsrfHelper 349

11.7 DateHelper 349

11.8 DebugHelper 356

11.9 FormHelper 357

11.10 FormOptionsHelper 371

11.11 FormTagHelper 379

11.12 JavaScriptHelper 385

11.13 NumberHelper 385

11.14 OutputSafetyHelper 390

11.15 RecordTagHelper 390

11.16 RenderingHelper 391

11.17 SanitizeHelper 391

11.18 TagHelper 393

11.19 TextHelper 395

11.20 TranslationHelper and the I18n API 399

11.21 UrlHelper 418

11.22 Writing Your Own View Helpers 422

11.23 Wrapping and Generalizing Partials 425

11.24 Conclusion 431



Chapter 12: Haml 433



12.1 Getting Started 434

12.2 The Basics 434

12.3 Doctype 440

12.4 Comments 440

12.5 Evaluating Ruby Code 441

12.6 Helpers 443

12.7 Filters 444

12.8 Haml and Content 445

12.9 Configuration Options 446

12.10 Conclusion 448



Chapter 13: Session Management 449



13.1 What to Store in the Session 450 13.2 Session Options 451

13.3 Storage Mechanisms 451

13.4 Cookies 455

13.5 Conclusion 457



Chapter 14: Authentication and Authorization 459



14.1 Devise 459

14.2 has_secure_password 466

14.3 Pundit 470

14.4 Conclusion 476



Chapter 15: Security 477



15.1 Password Management 477 15.2 Log Masking 479

15.3 SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) 480

15.4 Model Mass-Assignment Attributes Protection 481

15.5 SQL Injection 483

15.6 Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) 484

15.7 XSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) 487

15.8 Session Fixation Attacks 490

15.9 Keeping Secrets 491

15.10 Conclusion 492



Chapter 16: Action Mailer 493



16.1 Setup 493

16.2 Mailer Models 494

16.3 Receiving Emails 500

16.4 Server Configuration 502

16.5 Testing Email Content 502

16.6 Previews 503

16.7 Conclusion 504



Chapter 17: Caching and Performance 505



17.1 View Caching 505 17.2 Data Caching 521

17.3 Control of Web Caching 523

17.4 ETags 524

17.5 Conclusion 526



Chapter 18: Background Processing 527



18.1 Delayed Job 528

18.2 Sidekiq 531

18.3 Resque 537

18.4 Rails Runner 541

18.5 Conclusion 543



Chapter 19: Ajax on Rails 545



19.1 Unobtrusive JavaScript 547 19.2 Turbolinks 551

19.3 Ajax and JSON 553

19.4 Ajax and HTML 555

19.5 Ajax and JavaScript 557

19.6 Conclusion 558



Chapter 20: Asset Pipeline 559



20.1 Asset Pipeline 560

20.2 Wish List 560

20.3 The Big Picture 561

20.4 Organization: Where Does Everything Go? 561

20.5 Manifest Files 561

20.6 Custom Format Handlers 567

20.7 Postprocessing 568

20.8 Helpers 569

20.9 Fingerprinting 571

20.10 Serving the Files 572

20.11 Rake Tasks 573

20.12 Conclusion 574



Chapter 21: RSpec 575



21.1 Introduction 575 21.2 Basic Syntax and API 578

21.3 Matchers 587

21.4 Custom Expectation Matchers 588

21.5 Shared Behaviors 591

21.6 Shared Context 592

21.7 RSpec's Mocks and Stubs 592

21.8 Running Specs 595

21.9 RSpec Rails Gem 596

21.10 RSpec Tools 609

21.11 Conclusion 610



Chapter 22: XML 611



22.1 The to_xml Method 611

22.2 The XML Builder 620

22.3 Parsing XML 622

22.4 Conclusion 624



Appendix A: Active Model API Reference 625



A.1 AttributeMethods 625 A.2 Callbacks 627

A.3 Conversion 629

A.4 Dirty 629

A.5 Errors 631

A.6 ForbiddenAttributesError 635

A.7 Lint::Tests 635

A.8 Model 635

A.9 Name 636

A.10 Naming 638

A.11 SecurePassword 638

A.12 Serialization 638

A.13 Serializers::JSON 639

A.14 Serializers::Xml 639

A.15 Translation 640

A.16 Validations 641

A.17 Validator 648



Appendix B: Active Support API Reference 651



B.1 Array 651

B.2 ActiveSupport::BacktraceCleaner 657

B.3 Benchmark 658

B.4 ActiveSupport::Benchmarkable 658

B.5 BigDecimal 659

B.6 ActiveSupport::Cache::Store 660

B.7 ActiveSupport::CachingKeyGenerator 665

B.8 ActiveSupport::Callbacks 665

B.9 Class 668

B.10 ActiveSupport::Concern 671

B.11 ActiveSupport::Concurrency 672

B.12 ActiveSupport::Configurable 673

B.13 Date 673

B.14 DateTime 682

B.15 ActiveSupport::Dependencies 687

B.16 ActiveSupport::Deprecation 693

B.17 ActiveSupport::DescendantsTracker 694

B.18 ActiveSupport::Duration 695

B.19 Enumerable 696

B.20 ERB::Util 697

B.21 FalseClass 698

B.22 File 698

B.23 Hash 699

B.24 ActiveSupport::Gzip 704

B.25 ActiveSupport::HashWithIndifferentAccess 705

B.26 ActiveSupport::Inflector::Inflections 705

B.27 Integer 711

B.28 ActiveSupport::JSON 712

B.29 Kernel 712

B.30 ActiveSupport::KeyGenerator 714

B.31 ActiveSupport::Logger 714

B.32 ActiveSupport::MessageEncryptor 715

B.33 ActiveSupport::MessageVerifier 715

B.34 Module 716

B.35 ActiveSupport::Multibyte::Chars 724

B.36 NilClass 729

B.37 ActiveSupport::Notifications 729

B.38 Object 738

B.39 ActiveSupport::OrderedHash 743

B.40 ActiveSupport::OrderedOptions 743

B.41 ActiveSupport::PerThreadRegistry 744

B.42 ActiveSupport::ProxyObject 744

B.43 ActiveSupport::Railtie 745

B.44 Range 746

B.45 Regexp 747

B.46 ActiveSupport::Rescuable 748

B.47 String 748

B.48 ActiveSupport::StringInquirer 758

B.49 Struct 758

B.50 ActiveSupport::Subscriber 758

B.51 Symbol 759

B.52 ActiveSupport::TaggedLogging 759

B.53 ActiveSupport::TestCase 759

B.54 ActiveSupport::Testing::Assertions 761

B.55 Thread 762

B.56 Time 763

B.57 ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone 773

B.58 ActiveSupport::TimeZone 774

B.59 TrueClass 778

B.60 ActiveSupport::XmlMini 778



Appendix C: Rails Essentials 781



C.1 Environmental Concerns 781 C.2 Essential Gems 782

C.3 Ruby Toolbox 789

C.4 Screencasts 789



Index 791
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Review quote

Praise for The Rails Way



"For intermediates and above, I strongly recommend adding this title to your technical bookshelf. There is simply no other Rails title on the market at this time that offers the technical depth of the framework than The Rails (TM) 3 Way."

-Mike Riley, Dr. Dobb's Journal



"I highly suggest you get this book. Software moves fast, especially the Rails API, but I feel this book has many core API and development concepts that will be useful for a while to come."

-Matt Polito, software engineer and member of Chicago Ruby User Group





"This book should live on your desktop if you're a Rails developer. It's nearly perfect in my opinion."

-Luca Pette, developer



"The Rails (TM) 3 Way is likely to take you from being a haphazard poke-a-stick-at-it programmer to a deliberate, skillful, productive, and confident RoR developer."

-Katrina Owen, JavaRanch





"I can positively say that it's the single best Rails book ever published to date. By a long shot."

-Antonio Cangiano, software engineer and technical evangelist at IBM



"This book is a great crash course in Ruby on Rails! It doesn't just document the features of Rails, it filters everything through the lens of an experienced Rails developer-so you come out a pro on the other side."

-Dirk Elmendorf, cofounder of Rackspace Inc. and Rails developer





"The key to The Rails Way is in the title. It literally covers the 'way' to do almost everything with Rails. Writing a truly exhaustive reference to the most popular web application framework used by thousands of developers is no mean feat. A thankful community of developers that has struggled to rely on scant documentation will embrace The Rails Way with open arms. A tour de force!"

-Peter Cooper, editor, Ruby Inside: The Ruby Blog



"In the past year, dozens of Rails books have been rushed to publication. A handful are good. Most regurgitate rudimentary information easily found on the Web. Only this book provides both the broad and deep technicalities of Rails. Nascent and expert developers, I recommend you follow The Rails Way."

-Martin Streicher, chief technology officer, McClatchy Interactive, former editor in chief of Linux Magazine



"Hal Fulton's The Ruby Way has always been by my side as a reference while programming Ruby. Many times I had wished there was a book that had the same depth and attention to detail, only focused on the Rails framework. That book is now here and hasn't left my desk for the past month."

-Nate Klaiber, Ruby programmer



"I knew soon after becoming involved with Rails that I had found something great. Now, with Obie's book, I have been able to step into Ruby on Rails development coming from .NET and be productive right away. The applications I have created I believe to be a much better quality due to the techniques I learned using Obie's knowledge."

-Robert Bazinet, InfoQ.com, .NET, and Ruby community editor and founding member of the Hartford Ruby Brigade





"Extremely well written; it's a resource that every Rails programmer should have. Yes, it's that good."

-Reuven Lerner, Linux Journal columnist
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About Obie Fernandez

Obie Fernandez, Chief Technology Officer of Lean Startup Machine, has been hacking computers since he got his first Commodore VIC-20 in the 1980s. He helped program some of the world's first Java enterprise projects and founded Atlanta's Extreme Programming User Group (later Agile Atlanta). At world-renowned consultancies ThoughtWorks and his own Hashrocket, Obie focused on tackling high-risk projects, including some of the world's first enterprise Ruby on Rails projects.



Kevin Faustino, Founder and Chief Craftsman of Remarkable Labs in Toronto, Canada, has specialized in Ruby since 2008. He founded the Toronto Ruby Brigade, which hosts tech talks, hack nights, book clubs, and other events.
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Rating details

159 ratings
4.18 out of 5 stars
5 42% (67)
4 38% (61)
3 16% (26)
2 3% (4)
1 1% (1)
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