Racial Profiling : From Rhetoric to Reason
For undergraduate or graduate-level Introduction to Criminal Justice, Introduction to Policing, Racial Profiling, Racial Issues in Criminal Justice, or Research Methods courses in Criminal Justice or Sociology departments. The first and only truly objective text to move the racial profiling controversy from its current rhetorical base into a reasoned argument. Racial Profiling focuses on the scientific investigation of racial profiling without alternative political or social agendas, devoting equal attention to the multiple perspectives of this controversial topic. This book's scholarly approach enables instructors to present the topic in an objective way, facilitating learning and making students more informed consumers of the research.
- Paperback | 288 pages
- 149.9 x 226.1 x 10.2mm | 385.56g
- 29 Apr 2005
- Pearson Education (US)
- Upper Saddle River, NJ, United States
Table of contents
(Note: Each chapter begins with an Introduction and concludes with a Summary and Discussion Questions and Case Studies section.) 1. An Emergence. The Police and the Minority Community.Police Abuse and the Minority Community.The Influence of Race in Police Decision Making.Differential Community Support for the Police.The Promise and Peril of Community Policing.Profiling as an Enforcement Tool.Profiling Defined.Hijacker Profiling.Criminal Profiling.Drug Courier Profiling.How Race Became a Part of the Profile.The Dynamics of the Traffic Stop.The Stories and Media Attention.Whren v. United States.New Jersey: Racial Profiling's Ground Zero. 2. What We Know and Don't Know. Definitions and Measures.Definitions.Measures.The Structure of Racial Profiling Inquiry.Salient Research Questions.Are Minorities Stopped More Frequently?Are There Differences in the Reasons for the Stops?Are Minorities Searched More Frequently?Are Stops Involving Minorities More Punitive?Are Minorities Detained Longer During Stops?Are Incidents of Physical Resistance/Confrontation More Frequent?Do the Officers' Characteristics Matter?Overall Limitations of the Research. 3. Critical Methodological Issues. Defining Racial Profiling.Conceptual and Operational Definitions.Validity.The Denominator Problem.Types of Benchmarks.Advantages and Disadvantages of Benchmarks.Does It Really Make a Difference?Measuring Who Gets Stopped.Accuracy.Completeness.Reactivity.Causality: Correlation Is Not Cause. 4. Explaining the Disparity. Explanatory Continuums.Do Differential Offending Rates Explain the Disparity?Potential Theoretical Explanations.The Behavior of Individual Criminal Justice Actors.The Behavior of Criminal Justice Agencies.The Behavior of the Entire Criminal Justice System and Its Component Parts.Conflict Theory.The Theory of Differential Attentiveness. 5. The Political and Legal Response. The Political Response.The Legal Response.The Fourth Amendment - Unreasonable Search and Seizure.The Fourteenth Amendment - Equal Protection.Title 42, U.S.C., Section 14141 - Pattern and Practice.Stop and Frisk - The Terry Rule.Pretextual Stops.Title 42, U.S.C., Section 1983.Other Key Legal Rulings. 6. Conducting Racial Profiling Studies (Best Practices). Precipitating Events.Common Obstacles.Critical Steps.Enlisting the Help of Others.Developing Salient Research Questions.Data Collection Strategies.Data Analysis.Reporting the Results. 7. Solutions. Control Police Discretion.Control Consent Searches.Pay Attention to Deployment.Manage the Leader's Influence.Provide Proactive Training and Education.Recruit a Reflective Workforce.Use Technology.Change the Law.Make New Law.Make the Police More Accountable.Can We Really Make a Difference? 8. What's Next? Patterns in Research.Scholars and Police Administrators Will Partner to Produce Important Research.A Measurable Definition of Racial Profiling Will Remain Controversial.The Collection of Police Stop Data Will Become More Routine.Benchmarks Will Become More Accurate.Patterns in Police Administration.Police Departments May Recognize Their Role in Addressing Racial Injustice.Police Departments Will Avoid Legal Intervention at All Costs.Police Departments Will Implement Proactive Citizen Complain Procedures.Police Departments Will Develop Extensive Cultural Sensitivity Training Programs.Police Officers Will Learn to Clearly Articulate Their Motivations.Legal Patterns.Whren Is Not Likely to Be Reversed in the Near Future.Legal Remedies Based on the Equal Protection Clause Will Not Be Feasible Until the Statistics Are Better.Legal Remedies Based on 42 U.S.C., Section 14141 May Become More Frequent.Post 9/11 and the War on Terror: Are We Making the Same Mistake? References. Index.