Race Is a Four-Letter Word

Race Is a Four-Letter Word : The Genesis of the Concept

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This text is designed to be used as a supplementary text for any course in which the instructor wants to explore the history of the concept of race in America, the reasons why the concept has no biological validity, and how "race" grew to become accepted as something that virtually everyone regards as self-evident. The first chapter lays out the reasons why the concept is biologically indefensible, and the remainder of the book examines the course of events that created that concept; the journey through time goes from Herodotus through Marco Polo, the Renaissance and the role of the New World, on up to the American Civil War, the curious results of the alliance switch in World War I, Arthur Jensen, the Bell Curve, J. Phillippe Rushton, and the Pioneer Fund in the 21st century.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 336 pages
  • 154.9 x 233.7 x 20.3mm | 476.28g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • 6 maps, numerous halftones and line illustrations
  • 0195173511
  • 9780195173512

Review quote

"I found this book coherent, plausible, scholarly, engaging, and entertaining to read. If I were recommending this text to my colleagues, I would point to its thorough historical scope and scholarship, its ingratiating style, its distinctly individual voice, and its unique and valuable insights. This is a good, interesting, well-written book by someone who knows a great deal about both human biology and intellectual history."--Matt Cartmill, Professor of Anthropology, Duke University"The Brace manuscript is a tour de force. It represents a major contribution to our understanding of the history of race and racism."--George Armelagos, Professor of Anthropology, Emory University"This is a splendid manuscript on a much needed topic. The topic is timely and I have the greatest respect for the erudition and fine writing style that Dr. Brace provides in this original work. Dr. Brace is a highly respected biological anthropologist and this book will attract a wide reading audience of professionals and other readers who seek enlightenment on the socially debatable issue of race."--Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Anthropology, and Asian Studies, Cornell University"I would recommend this text without reservation to anyone who wants a detailed history of the idea of race in science. If one wants to know what individual scientists were doing and thinking, and one does not have time to read them, then this is THE BOOK."--Alan Goodman, Professor of Biological Anthropology, Hampshire College "I found this book coherent, plausible, scholarly, engaging, and entertaining to read. If I were recommending this text to my colleagues, I would point to its thorough historical scope and scholarship, its ingratiating style, its distinctly individual voice, and its unique and valuable insights. This is a good, interesting, well-written book by someone who knows a great deal about both human biology and intellectual history."--Matt Cartmill, Professor of Anthropology, Duke University"The Brace manuscript is a tour de force. It represents a major contribution to our understanding of the history of race and racism."--George Armelagos, Professor of Anthropology, Emory University"This is a splendid manuscript on a much needed topic. The topic is timely and I have the greatest respect for the erudition and fine writing style that Dr. Brace provides in this original work. Dr. Brace is a highly respected biological anthropologist and this book will attract a wide reading audience of professionals and other readers who seek enlightenment on the socially debatable issue of race."--Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Anthropology, and Asian Studies, Cornell University"I would recommend this text without reservation to anyone who wants a detailed history of the idea of race in science. If one wants to know what individual scientists were doing and thinking, and one does not have time to read them, then this is THE BOOK."--Alan Goodman, Professor of Biological Anthropology, Hampshire College "I found this book coherent, plausible, scholarly, engaging, and entertaining to read. If I were recommending this text to my colleagues, I would point to its thorough historical scope and scholarship, its ingratiating style, its distinctly individual voice, and its unique and valuable insights. This is a good, interesting, well-written book by someone who knows a great deal about both human biology and intellectual history."--Matt Cartmill, Professor of Anthropology, Duke University "The Brace manuscript is a tour de force. It represents a major contribution to our understanding of the history of race and racism."--George Armelagos, Professor of Anthropology, Emory University "This is a splendid manuscript on a much needed topic. The topic is timely and I have the greatest respect for the erudition and fine writing style that Dr. Brace provides in this original work. Dr. Brace is a highly respected biological anthropologist and this book will attract a wide reading audience of professionals and other readers who seek enlightenment on the socially debatable issue of race."--Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Anthropology, and Asian Studies, Cornell University "I would recommend this text without reservation to anyone who wants a detailed history of the idea of race in science. If one wants to know what individual scientists were doing and thinking, and one does not have time to read them, then this is THE BOOK."--Alan Goodman, Professor of Biological Anthropology, Hampshire College "I found this book coherent, plausible, scholarly, engaging, and entertaining to read. If I were recommending this text to my colleagues, I would point to its thorough historical scope and scholarship, its ingratiating style, its distinctly individual voice, and its unique and valuable insights. This is a good, interesting, well-written book by someone who knows a great deal about both human biology and intellectual history."--Matt Cartmill, Professor of Anthropology, Duke University "The Brace manuscript is a tour de force. It represents a major contribution to our understanding of the history of race and racism."--George Armelagos, Professor of Anthropology, Emory University "This is a splendid manuscript on a much needed topic. The topic is timely and I have the greatest respect for the erudition and fine writing style that Dr. Brace provides in this original work. Dr. Brace is a highly respected biological anthropologist and this book will attract a wide reading audience of professionals and other readers who seek enlightenment on the socially debatable issue of race."--Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Anthropology, and Asian Studies, Cornell University "I would recommend this text without reservation to anyone who wants a detailed history of the idea of race in science. If one wants to know what individual scientists were doing and thinking, and one does not have time to read them, then this is THE BOOK."--Alan Goodman, Professor of Biological Anthropology, Hampshire College "I found this book coherent, plausible, scholarly, engaging, and entertaining to read. If I were recommending this text to my colleagues, I would point to its thorough historical scope and scholarship, its ingratiating style, its distinctly individual voice, and its unique and valuable insights.This is a good, interesting, well-written book by someone who knows a great deal about both human biology and intellectual history."--Matt Cartmill, Professor of Anthropology, Duke University"The Brace manuscript is a tour de force. It represents a major contribution to our understanding of the history of race and racism."--George Armelagos, Professor of Anthropology, Emory University"This is a splendid manuscript on a much needed topic. The topic is timely and I have the greatest respect for the erudition and fine writing style that Dr. Brace provides in this original work. Dr. Brace is a highly respected biological anthropologist and this book will attract a wide readingaudience of professionals and other readers who seek enlightenment on the socially debatable issue of race."--Kenneth A. R. Kennedy, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Anthropology, and Asian Studies, Cornell University"I would recommend this text without reservation to anyone who wants a detailed history of the idea of race in science. If one wants to know what individual scientists were doing and thinking, and one does not have time to read them, then this is THE BOOK."--Alan Goodman, Professor of BiologicalAnthropology, Hampshire Collegeshow more

Table of contents

Preface ; Introduction ; 1. THE BIOLOGY OF HUMAN VARIATION ; 1.1. Background of a Belief ; 1.2. Adaptive Traits: Clines ; 1.2.1. Skin ; 1.2.2. Tooth Size ; 1.2.3. Hemoglobin S ; 1.2.4. Blood Groups ; 1.2.5. Clusters and Non-Adaptive Traits ; 2. THE PERCEPTION AND HUMAN DIFFERENCES IN THE PAST ; 2.1. What Should We Call "Them?" ; 2.2. The Peasant Perspective ; 2.3. Antiquity ; 2.4. Renaissance ; 2.5. Enlightenment-The "Age of Reason" ; 2.6. Science and The Greatness of God ; 2.7. The Limits of Reason ; 2.8. Linnaeus and Classification ; 2.8.1. Linnaeus and the Classification of the Human Species ; 2.8.2. The Great Chain of Being ; 2.9. Buffon and Continuity ; 2.10. Camper and the Facial Angle ; 2.11. Assessing the Meaning of Human Differences ; 3. ONE ORIGIN OR MANY? ; 3.1. The Roots of "Polygenism" ; 3.1.1. Paracelsus ; 3.1.2. Peyrere ; 3.2. Monogenism ; 4. ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE ENLIGHTENMENT ; 4.1. Blumenbach and "Degeneration" ; 4.2. The Scottish Enlightenment Comes to America ; 4.3. Samuel Stanhope Smith: "Race" From the Perspective of the American Enlightenment ; 5. THE TRIUMPH OF FEELING OVER REASON ; 5.1. Romanticism ; 6. PHRENOLOGY ; 7. THE FOUNDING OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF ANTHROPOLOGY ; 7.1 The Post-Colonial United States of America ; 7.2. Samuel George Morton and the American Origin of Biological Anthropology ; 8. PASSING THE TORCH ; 8.1. Louis Agassiz, Archetypical American ; 9. THE DEMISE OF MONOGENISM AND THE RISE OF POLYGENISM ; 9.1. John Bachman: The Last Monogenist ; 9.2. Josiah Clark Nott: The Voice of American Radicalism ; 9.3. Scotland: Dr. Robert Knox ; 9.4. France: Comte de Gobineau ; 10. TOWARDS A WAR OVER SLAVERY AND AFTERWARDS ; 10.1. George R. Gliddon ; 10.2. "Race" and Politics ; 10.3. War and Its Aftermath ; 11. THE FRENCH CONNECTION ; 11.1. Paul Broca and the Professionalization of Biological Anthropology ; 11.2. The Demise of the American School of Anthropology ; 12. THE LEGACY OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL IN AMERICA ; 12.1. Nathaniel Southgate Shaler (1841-1906) ; 12.2. The First World War ; 12.3. The French Connection and the Concept of "Race" ; 12.4. William Z. Ripley and the Magic Three ; 12.5. Madison Grant ; 12.6. Lothrop Stoddard ; 13. THE ETHOS OF EUGENICS ; 13.1. Eugenics ; 13.2. Eugenics Exported to America ; 13.3. Germany ; 13.4. "Race" and Eugenics Applied to the Shaping of America ; 14. HENRY FORD AND THE ETHOS OF THE HOLOCAUST ; 14.1. The Anti-Semitism of Henry Ford ; 14.2. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion ; 15. THE OUTLOOK OF THE BIGOT BRIGADE ; 15.1. "Race" and "Intelligence" ; 15.2. "Statistical Theology and the Worship of 'g'" ; 15.3. Sir Cyril Burt-"Scientific" Fraud ; 16. THE GALTONIAN LEGACY IN AMERICA ; 16.1. World War I ; 16.2. "Intelligence" and Immigration ; 16.3. Lewis Terman and Genetic Predestination ; 16.4. Walter Lippmann Versus the Termanites ; 17. "RACE" IN BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY ; 17.1. Ale Hrdlicka and the Smithsonian: Organizing the Profession ; 17.2. Academia and The Patterns of Thought in Biological Anthropology: Sir Arthur Keith ; 17.3 Keith's Influence on America: Earnest Albert Hooton ; 17.4. Carleton Coon on "Race" ; 17.5. Science and Society on "Race" After World War II ; 18. THE LEGACY OF PIONEER FUND ; 18.1. The Promotion of "Scientific" Racism ; 18.2. Jensenism ; 18.3. Galton and "The Bell Curve" ; 18.4. J. Philippe Rushton ; 18.5. Richard Lynn ; 19. "OTHERISM" ; 19.1. Afterthoughts ; Sources Cited ; Indexshow more

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34 ratings
4.05 out of 5 stars
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4 47% (16)
3 15% (5)
2 6% (2)
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