RC4 Stream Cipher and Its Variants

RC4 Stream Cipher and Its Variants

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Description

RC4 Stream Cipher and Its Variants is the first book to fully cover the popular software stream cipher RC4. With extensive expertise in stream cipher cryptanalysis and RC4 research, the authors focus on the analysis and design issues of RC4. They also explore variants of RC4 and the eSTREAM finalist HC-128. After an introduction to the vast field of cryptology, the book reviews hardware and software stream ciphers and describes RC4. It presents a theoretical analysis of RC4 KSA, discussing biases of the permutation bytes toward secret key bytes and absolute values. The text explains how to reconstruct the secret key from known state information and analyzes the RC4 PRGA in detail, including a sketch of state recovery attacks. The book then describes three popular attacks on RC4: distinguishing attacks, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol attacks, and fault attacks. The authors also compare the advantages and disadvantages of several variants of RC4 and examine stream cipher HC-128, which is the next level of evolution after RC4 in the software stream cipher paradigm. The final chapter emphasizes the safe use of RC4. With open research problems in each chapter, this book offers a complete account of the most current research on RC4.show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 311 pages
  • 154.94 x 236.22 x 20.32mm | 635.03g
  • Taylor & Francis Inc
  • CRC Press Inc
  • Bosa Roca, United States
  • English
  • New
  • 12 black & white illustrations, 27 black & white tables
  • 1439831351
  • 9781439831359
  • 2,384,869

Review quote

"This remarkable monograph is 'the first one on RC4.' The theory surrounding the development of RC4 is very helpful for the study of stream ciphers in general, as the authors say. The book will be of interest to scholars and students whose expertise lies in cryptography, applied mathematics, computer security, and so on." -Zhixiong Chen, Mathematical Reviews, January 2013 "I am delighted to introduce the first complete book on RC4, the most popular and widely deployed software stream cipher. ... This book contains not only the authors' own research materials, but it has nicely assimilated the results of others to make it a complete treatise on RC4 and its variants. I believe this book will be widely accepted as an important research monograph by both the students and experienced researchers in the field of cryptology." -From the Foreword by Bimal Roy, founder of the Cryptology Research Society of India and director of the Indian Statistical Instituteshow more

About Goutam Paul

Goutam Paul is an assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Jadavpur University. Dr. Paul has published articles in numerous refereed journals, including Discrete Applied Mathematics, Journal of Mathematical Cryptology, and Designs, Codes and Cryptography. His research interests include cryptography, security, steganography, and combinatorial algorithms. Subhamoy Maitra is a professor at the Indian Statistical Institute. Dr. Maitra has contributed extensively to many peer-reviewed journals, such as IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Discrete Mathematics, and Designs, Codes and Cryptography. He is also on the editorial board of Cryptography and Communications: Discrete Structures, Boolean Functions and Sequences. His research interests include cryptographically significant Boolean functions, design and cryptanalysis of stream ciphers, analysis of RSA and factorization, and cryptanalysis of digital watermarking schemes.show more

Table of contents

Introduction to Cryptography Etymology and Some Historical Facts Primary Goals of Cryptography Basic Terminology Cryptographic Attack Models Cryptographic Security Private and Public Key Cryptosystems Stream Ciphers and RC4 Introduction to Stream Ciphers Attack Models for Stream Cipher Cryptanalysis Hardware Stream Ciphers Software Stream Ciphers On Randomness and Pseudo-Randomness Analysis of Key Scheduling Bias of Permutation toward Secret Key Non-Randomness of Permutation Movement Frequency of Permutation Values Key Collisions Key Recovery from State Information Reversibility of RC4 PRGA Recovery through Solving Simultaneous Equations Improvement by Difference Equations Group of Key Bytes Approach Byte by Byte Recovery Bit by Bit Recovery Bidirectional Key Search Analysis of Keystream Generation Finney Cycles Glimpse Theorem Biased Permutation Index Selection for the First Keystream Byte Characterization of PRGA Evolution Some Biases in First Keystream Byte toward Secret Key More Biases in Many Keystream Bytes toward Secret Key Exhaustive Enumeration of All Biases State Recovery from Keystream Distinguishing Attacks A Theoretical Framework of Distinguishing Attacks Distinguishers Based on Initial Keystream Bytes Distinguishers Based on Any Stage of PRGA WEP and WPA Attacks RC4 in WEP and the Attack Principle FMS Attack Mantin's Attack Klein's Attack PTW and VX Attacks RC4 in WPA and Related Attacks Fault Attacks Hoch and Shamir's Attack Impossible and Differential Fault Attacks Fault Attack Based on Fork Model Fault Attack with Pseudo-Random Index Stuck Variants of RC4 Byte-Oriented Variants Word-Oriented Variants RC4-Based Hash RC4+ Stream Cipher HC-128 Description of HC-128 Linear Approximation of Feedback Functions Distinguishing Attacks on HC-128 Collisions in h1, h2 and State Leakage in Keystream Constructing Full-State Given Only Half-State Information Design Modification with Respect to Known Observations Conclusion Safe Use of RC4 Appendix A: A Sample C Implementation of RC4 Appendix B: Verified Test Vectors of RC4 Bibliography Index Research Problems are presented at the end of chapters 3-10.show more