Introduction; Part 1. What Is a Public Budget? Origins and Purposes; 1. Making "Common Sense" Out of Federal Budgeting, Joseph White; 2. Who Invented Public Budgeting in the United States? Irene S. Rubin; 3. The Road to PPB: The Stages of Reform, Allen Schick; Part 2. Budgeting in a Democracy; Institutional Arrangements; 4. Paradox, Ambiguity, and Enigma: The Strange Case of the Executive Budget and the United States Constitution, Naomi Caiden; 5. The Executive Budget: An Idea Whose Time Has Passed?, Bernard T. Pitsvada; 6. The End of Executive Dominance in State Appropriations, Glenn Abney and Thomas P. Lauth; 7. Budgeting by the Ballot: Initiatives in the State of Montana, Krishna K. Tummala and Marilyn F. Wessel; Part 3. The Roles of the Key Budget Actors and Decision Making; 8. The Office of Management and Budget in a Changing Scene, Frederick C. Mosher and Max O. Stephenson, Jr.; 9. The Shifting Roles of State Budget Offices in the Midwest: Gosling Revisited, Kurt Thurmaier and James J. Gosling; 10. Courts and Public Purse Strings: Have Portraits of Budgeting Missed Something? Jeffrey D. Straussman; 11. Federal Agency Budget Officers: Who Needs Them?, Herbert G. Persil; 12. The Budget-Minimizing Bureaucrat? Empirical Evidence from the Senior Executive Service, Julie Dolan; 13. Police Budgeting: Winning Strategies, Charles K. Coe and Deborah Lamm Weisel; 14. Aaron Wildavsky and the Demise of Incrementalism, Irene Rubin; 15. Decision Strategies of the Legislative Budget Analyst: Economist or Politician? Katherine G. Willoughby and Mary A. Finn; Part 4. The Budget Process; 16. Ten Years of the Budget Act: Still Searching for Controls, Louis Fisher; 17. Deficit Politics and Constitutional Government: The Impact of Gramm-Rudman-Hollings, Lance LeLoup, Barbara Luck Graham, and Stacey Barwick; 18. The Budget Enforcement Act and Its Survival: Congress Hears from Experts, Philip G. Joyce; 19. Does Budget Format Really Govern the Actions of Budgetmakers? Gloria A. Grizzle; 20. Participatory Democracy and Budgeting: The Effects of Proposition 13, Jerry McCaffery and John H. Bowman; Part 5. Constraints; 21. Changes in Intergovernmental Fiscal Patterns, George F. Break; 22. At What Price? Costs of Federal Mandates Since the 1980s, Marcella Ridlen Ray and Timothy J. Conlan; 23. The Inflexibility of Contemporary Budgets, Bengt-Christer Ysander and Ann Robinson; 24. Re-establishing Budgetary Flexibility, Ann Robinson and Bengt-Christer Ysander; 25. Entitlement Budgeting vs. Bureau Budgeting, Joseph White; 26. Constraint and Uncertainty: Budgeting in California, Naomi Caiden and Jeffrey I. Chapman; 27. Restraint in a Land of Plenty: Revenue and Expenditure Limitations in Texas, Glenn Hahn Cope and W. Norton Grubb; 28. Budgeting Rights: The Case of Jail Litigation, Jeffrey D. Straussman and Kurt Thurmaier; Part 6. Privatization and Contracting; 29. Competition and Choice in New York City Social Services, E.S. Savas; 30. The Need for a Privatization Process: Lessons from Development and Implementation, Bruce Wallin; Part 7. Budget Norms and Ethics; 31. Budgetary Balance: The Norm, Concepts, and Practice in Large U.S. Cities, Carol Lewis; 32. Federal Budget Concept-Bright Lines or Black Holes? Thomas J. Cuny; 33. Accountability and Entrepreneurial Public Management: The Case of the Orange County Investment Fund, Kevin P. Kearns; 34. The Lottery and Education: Robbing Peter to Pay Paul? Charles J. Spindler; 35. The Monster That Ate the United States Senate, Bill Dauster; Index; About the Editor.