Psychology : A Behavioural Overview

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Psychology: A Behavioral Overview is an introductory text with an orienting per- spective that is frankly behavioral rather than eclectic. This focus is made quite clear in the first chapter of the book, but in the remainder it also becomes clear that such a focus permits coverage of most of the topics found in the more common introductory text. Actually, the next five chapters (dealing with psy- chology as a scienc~, methodology, evolution, physiology, and learning) are in many ways comparable to the treatments provided in more eclectic introductory texts. The behavioral focus and the departure from traditional approaches be- come most significant in the last six chapters which deal with traditional psycho- logical topics (e. g. , language, child development, and personality)-but deal with them systematically in terms of the concepts and principles introduced in the chapters on evolution and physiology, and especially in the chapter on learning. Using the concepts provided early in the text to interpret complex aspects of human behavior provides valuable justification for those concepts, as well as an opportunity for improved understanding of them.
Although students will not make extensive contact with the variety of the- oretical approaches found in the typical text, they will become especially compe- tent in the use of behavioral concepts and principles to interpret and understand many of the topics of traditional importance in psychology.
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Product details

  • Hardback | 411 pages
  • 196.85 x 230 x 25.4mm | 1,020g
  • Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers
  • Dordrecht, Netherlands
  • English
  • 66 black & white illustrations, biography
  • 0306434326
  • 9780306434327

Table of contents

1: The Study of Behavior.- What Is Psychology?.- A Brief History of Behaviorism.- The Behavioral Perspective.- Defining Behavior.- Three Myths Concerning Behaviorism.- 2: Science and Psychology.- Characteristics of Science.- Inadequate Explanations of Behavior.- Psychological Theories.- Objections to a Science of Behavior.- Science and Pseudoscience.- 3: Research Methods.- What Is Research?.- General Research Strategies.- Naturalistic Observation.- Correlational Research.- Case Studies.- Experimentation.- Relations among Variables.- Internal and External Validity.- Experimental Designs.- Experimental Questions.- Six Steps in Experimentation.- Within-Subject Designs: An Example.- Between-Subjects Designs: An Example.- Data Analysis: Type 1 and Type 2 Errors.- 4: Evolution and Behavior.- Historical Overview.- Natural Selection.- Genetics.- DNA and the Genetic Code.- Genetic Mutation.- Genetic Variation.- Evolution in Action.- Evolution of Behavior.- The Inheritance of Behavior.- Interpreting Heritability.- Nature and Nurture.- Behaviorism and Inherited Behavior.- Human Evolutionary (Phylogenetic) Development.- Hominid Evolutionary Development.- 5: Physiology and Behavior.- Sensation.- Vision.- Audition.- Gustation.- Olfaction.- The Skin Senses.- The Body Senses.- Sensation versus Perception.- Neurons.- Structure and Function of Neurons.- The Nerve Impulse.- The Synapse.- The Peripheral Nervous System.- The Somatic Nervous System.- The Autonomic Nervous System.- The Central Nervous System.- The Spinal Cord.- The Brain.- Cerebral Structure and Function.- Hemispheric Specialization.- Effectors.- Muscles.- Glands.- Neuroscience and Psychology.- Physiology and a Science of Behavior.- 6: Learning.- Respondent Conditioning.- Unconditioned Reflexes.- Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing and Conditioned Reflexes.- Higher Order Conditioning.- Quantifying Respondent Behaviors.- Temporal Relations.- Respondent Extinction.- Respondent Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination.- The Importance of Respondent Behavior.- Operant Conditioning.- Reinforcement.- Classifying Reinforcers.- The Opportunity to Behave as a Reinforcer.- Motivational Variables.- Operant Extinction.- Intermittent Reinforcement.- Stimulus Control.- Conceptual Behavior and Functional Equivalence.- Shaping and Chaining.- Punishment.- Rule-Governed Behavior.- The Importance of Operant Conditioning.- 7: Language, Consciousness, and Memory.- Language.- Chomsky's Analysis of Language.- A Behavioral Analysis of Language.- Stages of Prespeech Development.- Linguistic Development.- Linguistic Input.- The Physiology of Speech.- The Brain.- Why Is Language Important?.- Consciousness.- Consciousness and Verbal Behavior.- Self-Awareness.- The Role of Awareness in Learning.- Memory.- A Behavioral Perspective.- Some Memory Phenomena.- A Cognitive Perspective.- The Information-Processing Model.- Summary.- 8: Child Development.- Conception and Prenatal Development.- Stages of Development.- Effects of the External Environment on Prenatal Development.- Genetic Abnormalities.- Birth and Postnatal Development.- Neurological Development.- Motor Development.- Body Management.- Mobility.- Visual Development.- Basic Visual Abilities of Infants.- Perception of Depth.- Cognitive Behavioral Development: Piaget's Analysis.- Cognitive Structure and Processes.- Periods of Cognitive Development.- Evaluation of Piaget's Theory.- The Development of Social Behavior.- Development of Attachment.- Theories of Attachment.- Emotional Development.- Physiological Arousal.- Motivation.- Intelligence and Its Development.- 9: Personality.- A Psychoanalytic Theory.- Motivation.- Structure.- Defense Mechanisms.- Personality Development.- Personality Assessment.- Are Freudian Explanations of Behavior Adequate?.- A Humanistic Theory.- Motivation.- Personality Development and Structure.- Incongruence.- Personality Assessment.- Are Rogersian Explanations of Behavior Adequate?.- A Constitutional Theory.- Structure.- Behavior.- Somatotype-Behavior Relations.- Personality Assessment.- Does Sheldon's Theory Provide Adequate Explanations of Behavior?.- A Trait Theory.- What Are Traits?.- Structure.- Motivation.- Personality Development.- Personality Assessment.- Are Trait Theories Adequate Explanations of Behavior?.- A Behavioral Theory.- Motivation.- Structure.- Personality Development.- Personality Assessment.- Role of the Individual.- Is Skinner's Theory an Adequate Explanation of Behavior?.- Summary and Conclusions.- 10: Social Psychology.- Social Cognition: Attitudes and Behavior.- Correspondence between Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior.- Attribution.- Attributional Errors.- Social Influence.- Conformity.- Compliance.- Obedience.- Persuasion.- Social Facilitation.- Social Loafing.- Social Relations.- Aggression.- Altruism.- Attraction.- Social Psychology and Behavior Analysis.- 11: Abnormal Behavior.- What Makes Behavior Troublesome?.- Mental Illness.- Schizophrenia.- Mood Disorders.- Anxiety Disorders.- Mental Retardation.- Etiology.- Treatment.- Drug Abuse.- Causes of Drug Abuse.- Treating Drug Abuse.- 12: Applications of Behavioral Psychology.- Community and Environmental Problems.- Reducing Energy Use.- Littering.- Safety Hazards in the Home.- Safety in the Dental Office.- Crime.- Unemployment.- Business and Industry.- Worker Tardiness and Absenteeism.- Worker Productivity.- Worker Safety.- Phone Use.- Clinical Applications.- Anxiety Disorders and Phobias.- Depression.- Hysteria.- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.- Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders.- Marital Discord.- Multiple Personalities.- Behavioral Medicine.- Obesity.- Anorexia Nervosa.- Bulimia Nervosa.- Hypertension.- Chronic Pain.- Headache.- Asthma.- Sexual Dysfunction.- Patient Compliance.- General Education.- Studying.- Disruptive Behavior.- Specific Skills.- Broad-Spectrum Applications.- Educating Developmentally Disabled Persons.- Communication Skills.- Vocational Skills.- Community-Living Skills.- Disruptive Behavior and Self-Injury.- Conclusions.- References.
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Review quote

'[This book] is an introductory text with an orienting perspective that is frankly behavioral...Students who use [this text] will be ideally prepared for further work in a behaviorally oriented undergraduate major, and because of the coverage of traditional topics, they will not feel out of place in later courses taught from a nonbehavioral perspective. ...if they [the students] master the material of this text, they will have learned much about the science of behavior.' from the Foreword by Jack Michael, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI
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