Psychobiology

Psychobiology

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Description

Psychobiology provides a comprehensive, yet accessible introduction to the study of psychobiology and the key concepts, topics and research that are core to understanding the brain and the biological basis of our behaviour. Assuming no prior knowledge of biology, the text emphasises the interaction of psychobiology with other core areas of psychology and disciplines. Through the use of exciting and engaging examples, the role of psychobiology in the real world is explored and emphasisised to allow students to connect theory to practice in this fascinating subject.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 672 pages
  • 217 x 276 x 28mm | 1,448g
  • Wiley-Blackwell (an imprint of John Wiley & Sons Ltd)
  • Chicester, United Kingdom
  • English
  • 1405187433
  • 9781405187435
  • 449,424

Back cover copy

Psychobiology provides a comprehensive, yet accessible introduction to the study of psychobiology and the key concepts, topics and research that are core to understanding the brain and the biological basis of our behaviour. Assuming no prior knowledge of biology, the text emphasises the interaction of psychobiology with other core areas of psychology and disciplines. Through the use of exciting and engaging examples, the role of psychobiology in the real world is explored and emphasisised to allow students to connect theory to practice in this fascinating subject.
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Table of contents

Preface xix PART I IN THE BEGINNING 1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Psychobiology 3 Introduction 4 What is Psychobiology? 4 Reductionism 4 History of Neuroscience 6 Psychobiology: Essential Collaboration 9 Points of View in Psychobiology 9 Physiological Psychology 9 Psychophysiology 9 Psychopharmacology 10 Neuropsychology 10 Cognitive Neuroscience 10 Social/Affective Neuroscience 10 Comparative Psychology 10 Behavioural Genetics 11 Computational Neuroscience 11 Ethics: Bioethics and Neuroethics 12 Animal Research 13 Experiments in the USA 14 Beyond the USA and UK 15 Professional Bodies: British Psychological Society (BPS) and American Psychological Association (APA) 15 Beyond the Ethics of Animal Research: The Validity of Animal Models of Behaviour 16 Good Science Versus Junk In Junk Out 20 Summary 20 CHAPTER 2 Genetics and Evolution 23 Introduction 24 In The Beginning Evolution 24 Darwin s Revolutionary Theory The Theory of Evolution 25 Evidence: The Case in Support of the Theory of Evolution 25 The Organism and the Environment 26 The Evolution of Humans 27 Evolutionary Psychology 29 From Evolution to Genetics 29 Mendelian Genetics 35 Mendelian Genetics and Eye Colour 36 Mendelian Inheritance: Huntington s Disease Dominant Allele in Action 37 Mendelian Inheritance: PKU A Recessive Allele in Action 39 Chromosomes and Inheritance 39 DNA 42 What is DNA? 43 What is the Function of DNA? 44 Genetic Variation 47 Variable Number Tandem Repeats 47 Epigenetics 50 Behavioural Genetics: The Complex Interplay of Psychology and Genetics 50 DNA and Psychology 55 Beyond Mendelian Inheritance: The Endophenotype 56 Molecular Biotechnology and Psychology 56 The Human Genome Project 57 Summary 59 CHAPTER 3 Neural Development 61 Introduction 62 General Development 62 Neural Development over the Lifespan 62 Neural Development 64 Developmental Changes in the Brain 64 Development of The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 71 Development of The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) 71 Male and Female Brains 71 Adolescent Development 71 Adult Development 75 Critical Periods 76 Teratology 78 Summary 80 CHAPTER 4 The Neuron, The Endocrine System and Communication 83 Introduction 84 Neurons 84 Inside the Cell: Atoms at the Heart of Life 84 Neurons: Structure and Function 84 Support Cells 89 Glial Cells 89 Types of Neurons 90 Signalling and Communication Within the Neuron 90 Electrical Communication 90 Signalling and Communication between Neurons: Synaptic Transmission 99 Neurotransmitters 101 Receptors 102 Synaptic and Cellular Regulation 104 Retrograde Signalling 107 Signalling and Communication between Neurons: Gap Junctions 108 Endocrinology: Studying Long-Distance Communication 109 Action of Hormones at Their Target 113 Regulation 114 Summary 114 CHAPTER 5 Neuroanatomy and The Nervous System 117 Introduction 118 The Nervous Systems 118 The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 118 The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) 120 The Central Nervous System (CNS) 126 Neuroanatomy 130 White and Grey Matter 131 Spatial Relationships of the Brain and Spinal Cord 132 Brain Regions 132 Forebrain: Telencephalon and Diencephalon 132 The Limbic System (and Hippocampus) 141 The Basal Ganglia 143 Midbrain: Mesencephalon 143 Hindbrain: Metencephalon and Myelencephalon 143 The Ins and Outs of Blood Supply to the Brain 145 Arterial Supply of Oxygenated Blood 147 The Cerebral Arterial Circle: The Circle of Willis 149 Sinuses 149 Endocrine System 150 The Pituitary Gland 150 Summary 150 CHAPTER 6 Psychobiology and Neuroscience Methods 153 Introduction 154 Physiological Psychology 154 Neuropsycho-Pharmacology 157 Unilateral and Bilateral Lesions 158 Psychophysiology 158 The Electroencephalogram 158 Magnetoencephalography (MEG) 158 Event-related Potentials 159 Beyond the Brain 160 Brain Imaging 161 Nuclear Imaging Using Radioactivity and Radioactive Isotopes 161 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 164 Optical Imaging of the Brain 166 Neuroimaging is not the Ultimate Evidence 166 Neuroimaging Maps of the Mind 168 Psychophysiology and Neuroimaging Combined 168 Virtual Lesions Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation 169 Summary 169 CHAPTER 7 Psychopharmacology 173 Introduction 174 Drug Classification 174 Drug Action 177 Pharmacokinetics 177 Pharmacodynamics 185 Types of Drugs 193 Stimulants 194 Depressants 194 Mind-Altering Drugs 196 Antidepressants 197 Antipsychotics 197 Psychopharmacology The Dark Side 197 Clinical Trials 199 Summary 201 CHAPTER 8 Animal Learning 203 Introduction 204 Learning Theory: Adaptations and Associations 205 Habituation 205 Reflexes 207 Classical Conditioning 208 Measuring the Conditioned Response 209 Acquisition 209 Extinction 209 Spontaneous Recovery 209 Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus Discrimination 210 Is the Conditioned Response Identical to the Unconditioned Response? 210 The Relationship between the Conditioned Stimulus and the Unconditioned Stimulus 211 Delay Conditioning 212 Simultaneous Conditioning 212 Backward Conditioning 213 Trace Conditioning 214 Temporal Conditioning 214 Latent Inhibition 215 Blocking 215 The Rescorla Wagner Model 215 Applications of Classical Conditioning: From Bench to Bedside 215 Operant Conditioning 216 The Law of Effect 217 Behaviourism 217 Acquisition 221 Shaping and Conditioning by Successive Approximations 221 Extinction 221 Spontaneous Recovery 221 Discrimination and Generalization 221 Interoceptive and Exteroceptive Stimuli 221 Applications of Operant Conditioning: From Bench to Bedside 224 Cognition in Animals 224 Summary 225 CHAPTER 9 Drugs and Behaviour: Behaviour and Drugs 227 Introduction 228 Schedules as Fundamental Determinants of Drug-Elicited Behaviour 228 Tolerance 230 Sensitization 233 The Placebo 233 Conscious Processes 238 Unconscious Processes 241 Summary 243 PART II PSYCHOBIOLOGY: BRINGING BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR TOGETHER 249 CHAPTER 10 Perceptual Systems 251 Introduction 252 The Sensory Modalities 252 Vision and Visual Perception 252 The Eye 253 The Sclera and Cornea 253 Aqueous Humour 255 The Iris and Pupil 255 The Lens 255 Vitreous Humour 255 The Retina 255 The Optic Nerve 261 Lateral Geniculate Nucleus 261 The Visual Cortex 263 Colour Perception 266 Binocular Vision: Two Eyes and Two Hemispheres 270 A Summary of Visual Perception 271 Hearing and Auditory Perception 272 The Ear 273 The Auditory Nerve and Cortex 274 Smelling and Olfactory Perception 275 The Nasal Membrane 275 Tasting and the Gustatory System 276 The Tongue and Mouth 276 The Vestibular System 277 Feeling and Somatosensation 279 The Skin 279 The Transmission of Tactile Stimuli to the Brain 279 Nociception and the Perception of Pain 279 Why Pain? 281 Components of Pain 281 Receptors 281 Pain Fibres 281 Pathways 282 Descending Pathways 284 Endogenous Analgesia 286 Pain Control 286 Masochism 290 The Hard Question 291 Sensory Integration 291 Summary 291 CHAPTER 11 Motor Behaviour and Control 293 Introduction 294 Regions of the Brain 294 The Motor Cortex 294 The Premotor Cortex 295 Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) 297 Presupplementary Motor Area (Pre-SMA) 297 Cingulate Motor Area 297 Broca s Area 297 Frontal Eye Fields 297 The Basal Ganglia 298 The Cerebellum 301 Brainstem 302 Descending Pathways 302 The Pyramidal System 305 The Extrapyramidal System 305 Passage of Information to Muscles 305 The Skeleton 306 The Muscles 306 Neurochemical Activation of the Muscles 307 Feedback 309 Control and Agency 309 Summary 309 CHAPTER 12 Executive Functions 315 Introduction 316 Frontal Lobe Evolution and the Cerebral Localization of Humanity 316 Lesions And Imaging 317 The Frontal Lobes: Damage and the Dysexecutive Syndrome 322 Thinking 322 Rule Learning, Planning and Problem Solving 323 Error Utilization 327 Attention 327 Theories Describing Frontal Lobe Function 328 Theory of Mind: Mind Reading (or Knowing Me, Knowing You (Aha)) 328 Just Say No The Case of Free Won t 329 Summary 339 CHAPTER 13 Neural Plasticity and Memory 343 Introduction 344 Memory: What is it and Where is it? 344 Amnesia 345 The Neural Basis of Memory 353 The Neural Bases of Learning: Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and Long-Term Depression (LTD) 353 What Happens at the Neural Level? 353 Neuroplasticity 355 Summary 356 CHAPTER 14 Sex 359 Introduction 360 Evolution of Sex and the Sexes 360 Differentiation of the Sexes 361 Female Genitalia 361 Male Genitalia 365 Sex Hormones 368 Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation 369 Sexual Development 373 The Male and Female Brain 373 What Regions of the Brain are Different in the Sexes? 377 What Happens During Sexual Arousal? 380 Evolution of Pleasure 386 Sexual orientation 386 Summary 388 CHAPTER 15 The Neural Regulation of Homeostasis: Feeding and Drinking 391 Introduction 392 Feeding Behaviour 392 Brain Mechanisms for Eating 397 Eating Disorders 401 Psychological Factors which Influence Eating 405 Drinking and Thirst 406 Brain Mechanisms in Thirst 406 Summary 406 CHAPTER 16 Motivation 409 Introduction 410 Drug Addiction: The Triumph of Motivation Over Reason 410 What is Addiction? 412 A Reward Pathway: A Common Denominator in Addiction and Motivation 413 Intracranial self-stimulation 413 Drug self-administration 416 Amphetamine, Cocaine and Nicotine 416 Natural Reinforcers 419 Theories of Addiction Theories of Motivation 419 Positive reinforcement 421 Sensitization 421 Physical dependence theories and negative reinforcement 423 Just say no 427 Motivation, addiction and learning 429 Which Theory is Correct? 430 Summary 431 CHAPTER 17 Emotion 435 Introduction 436 What is Emotion? 436 Facial Expression 438 Physiological/Psychological Theories of Emotion 443 James Lange Theory of Emotion 443 Cannon Bard Theory of Emotion 443 Schachter s Cognitive Labelling Theory of Emotion 446 The Emotional Brain 447 Papez Circuit 447 The Temporal Lobe and Limbic System in Emotion 447 The Amygdala 448 The Hippocampus and Fear 450 Fear or Fear Conditioning 450 Beyond Fear 452 Conceptual Act Model of Emotion 452 Rolls Reinforcement Model of Emotion 454 The Somatic Marker Hypothesis of Emotion 456 Emotion: What s Love Got To Do With It? 456 Love is the Drug 457 Aggression and Violence 458 Neural Mechanisms and Aggression 458 Hormones and Aggression 459 Stress 459 Emotion and Music: Beyond Emotion as an Evolutionary Adaptation (Or Not) 459 Summary 461 CHAPTER 18 Sleep and Consciousness 463 Introduction 464 Circadian Rhythms 464 Sleep 465 Sleep Architecture 465 The Stages of Sleep 465 The Neural Mechanisms of Sleep 468 Neurotransmitters and Sleep 468 Dreams 469 Theories of Sleep 470 Why Do We Need to Sleep? 470 Sleep Disorders and Mental Health 470 Consciousness 472 Who are We and What Do We feel? What is It to Think? 472 Free Will 474 Summary 481 CHAPTER 19 Lateralization and Language 483 Introduction 484 Lateralization: Neuroanatomy 484 Functional Lateralization 486 Asymmetry and Sex 489 Is Functional Lateralization Fixed? 490 Split Brains 490 Summary 496 PART III THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 499 CHAPTER 20 Developmental Disorders 503 Introduction 504 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 504 Diagnostic Criteria 504 Structural Changes in the Brain 506 Functional Neuroimaging of ADHD 506 Psychophysiological Studies 506 Frontostriatal Circuits 507 Pharmacology and Efficacy of Psychostimulants used in treating ADHD 507 Psychopharmacology: From Treatment to Theory 509 Barkley s Neuropsychological Account Behavioural Inhibition 511 Working Memory 513 Autism Spectrum Disorder 515 Diagnostic Criteria 515 The Genetics of ASD 515 Structural Neuroimaging in the Brain 518 Functional Neuroimaging of ASD 518 Neurochemistry and Psychopharmacology of ASD 519 Theories of ASD 519 Summary 520 CHAPTER 21 Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders 523 Introduction 524 Genetics of Schizophrenia 525 Neurochemistry of Schizophrenia 529 Typical and Atypical Antipsychotics 532 Neurobiological Theories 534 Neuropsychological Theories 535 Limitations of Many Studies in Schizophrenia 537 Summary 537 CHAPTER 22 Affective Disorders 541 Introduction 542 What causes depression? 545 Genetics of Depression 545 Neurochemistry of Depression 548 Noradrenergic Hypothesis of Depression 548 Serotonin Hypothesis of Depression 550 Treatments for Depression 552 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors 552 Atypical Antidepressants 552 Selective Noradrenergic Reuptake Inhibitors 552 Dual Action Antidepressants 552 Electroconvulsive Therapy 553 Lithium 553 Neuroanatomy of Depression 553 Is there a Common Denominator in all the Treatments for Depression? 554 Summary 556 CHAPTER 23 Stress and Anxiety 559 Introduction 560 Stress 560 What is Stress? 561 The Stress Response 563 Input of the Stress Response 564 Sympathetic-adrenomedullary axis (SAM) 565 Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis 566 Homeostasis Versus Allostasis (Acute Versus Chronic Stress) 569 Anxiety 571 Neurobiology 576 GABA and Anxiety 576 Barbiturates 576 Benzodiazepines 578 Noradrenaline 580 Serotonin 580 A Neuropsychological Theory of Anxiety 581 Summary 582 CHAPTER 24 Neurodegeneration 583 Introduction 584 Subcortical Neurodegeneration: Parkinson s Disease 584 Neuropathology 586 Neuropharmacology 586 Neuropsychology 589 Cortical Neurodegeneration: Alzheimer s Disease 593 Neuropathology 594 Neuropharmacology 596 Neuropsychology 598 Summary 600 CHAPTER 25 Psychobiology: Implications for the Brave New World 603 Introduction 604 Policy 604 Diagnosis 606 Treatment 606 Education 607 Law 608 Summary 610 Glossary 613 Index 635
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About Chris Chandler

Chris Chandler is currently a Principal Lecturer in biological psychology at London Metropolitan University. He has taught the biological aspects of psychology at all undergraduate levels and to an extremely diverse range of students, giving him ample experience of how to effectively convey complex information to a wide audience. His research background is in dopamine and addiction, as well as an interest in ADHD.
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