Excerpt from The Princeton Review: Fifty-Sixth Year; January-June, 1880
In our day, the disciples of Herbert Spencer, and the evolu tionists generally, take sides, of course, with Montaigne and against Descartes. As they hold that all modes of being and forms of life, from the lowest to the highest, are successively self developed, through countless slight gradations, from the primitive atoms which are the formless elements of chaos, so they necessari ly believe that all the faculties of the human mind exist also, tho in a rudimentary state, in the mental constitution of the inferior animals, and may even be traced in imagination much farther back, to the mud or dust whence those brutes originated. In his Descent of Man, accordingly, Mr. Darwin assures us that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, is certainly one of degree and not of kind. In the affection of the dog for his master, for instance, he beholds the rudiments of the religious sentiment; in the social instincts, he finds the elements of morality; and in the inarticulate cries, aided by gestures and movements of the muscles of the face, by which animals express their emotions, he detects the origin of language. And Mr. Huxley, consistent fatalist as he is, con trives to unite the doctrine of Descartes with that of Montaigne, by maintaining that man also, like the dog, is an only seemingly animate automaton, and therefore does not essentially differ from the machine-brute; since the higher grade of evolution that he has reached sufficiently accounts for what appears to be the greater skill expended upon his construction.
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