Practical Solutions to Integrated Oil and Gas Reservoir Analysis

Practical Solutions to Integrated Oil and Gas Reservoir Analysis : Geophysical and Geological Perspectives

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Practical Solutions to Integrated Oil and Gas Reservoir Analysis: Geophysical and Geological Perspectives is a well-timed source of information addressing the growing integration of geophysical, geological, reservoir engineering, production, and petrophysical data in predicting and determining reservoir properties. These include reservoir extent and sand development away from the well bore, characterizations of undrilled prospects, and optimization planning for field development. As such, geoscientists must now learn the technology, processes, and challenges involved within their specific functions in order to complete day-to-day activities.

A broad collection of real-life problems and challenging questions encountered by geoscientists in the exploration and development of oil and gas fields, the book treats subjects ranging from Basin Analysis, to identifying and mapping structures, stratigraphy, the distribution of fracture, and the identification of pore fluids. Looking at the well-to-seismic tie, time-to-depth conversion, AVO analysis, seismic inversion, rock physics, and pore pressure analysis/prediction, the text examines challenges encountered in these technical areas, and also includes solutions and techniques used to overcome those challenges.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 452 pages
  • 191 x 235 x 25.4mm | 930g
  • United States
  • English
  • 0128054646
  • 9780128054642

Table of contents

Foreword xi Acknowledgments xiii


Chapter 1 Basin Analysis: Overview and Uses 3 Uses of Basin Analysis 3 What is a Sedimentary Basin? 4 Basin Analysis Workflow: From Large-Scale to Mini-Scale 7 Large-Scale Analysis 7 Medium-Scale Analysis 8 Small-Scale Analysis 9 Unconventional Reservoirs 23 Unconventional and Tight Gas Sands: What We Know Now 23 Early Shale Play Production Projections and Subsequent Adjustments 37

Chapter 2 Overview of Qualitative Seismic Interpretation 49 Data Set Needed for Seismic Interpretation 51 Seismic Section 51 Advantages of Seismic Data 62 Disadvantages of Seismic Data 62 Structural Analysis 63 Fault Interpretation 63 Fault Picking 65 Guide to Fault Picking 65 Fault Interpretation in Carbonate Reservoir 69 Seismic Horizon Mapping 72 Seismic Horizon Interpretation Steps 73 Gridding 76 Fault Shadow on Seismic Section 77 Seismic Attribute Analysis 80 Why Are Seismic Attributes Important? 80 Seismic Attribute Reflection Strength 81 The Use of Interval Attributes on an Interface Property 83 Poststack Attributes 87 Filter Applied on Coherence Cube to Reduce Noise 88 Prestack Attributes 89 Zero Crossing Attribute 92 Attribute Analysis in Carbonate Reservoir 95 Seismic Attribute Analysis in Seismic Stratigraphy 100 Seismic Attribute for Unconventional Reservoir 101 Spectral Decomposition 103 Starting Point of Spectral Decomposition 109 Spectral Whitening/Blueing 111 Attribute for Fault Detection in Thin Bedded Structure 121 How to Determine Reservoir Thickness Using Seismic Attribute 122 Seismic Attribute as DHI 124 Seismic Attribute as DHI: Carbonate Reservoir 129 Attribute Map 135 Colored Seismic Inversion 136

Chapter 3 Subsurface Seismic Velocity Measurement 139 Check-Shot Data 139 Vertical Seismic Profile Data 142 Types of VSP Measurements 144 Difference Between Check-Shot and VSP Data 145 How to Import VSP Section to Match Your Seismic 149 How to QC VSP Data 149 How to Determine the Static Correction for VSP Data 153 VSPs Replacement Velocity 154 Difference Between Check-Shot and VSP and Depth-Time Model 157 Seismic Time-to-Depth Conversion 158 Time-to-Depth Conversion 158


Chapter 4 Quantitative Seismic Interpretation 171 Petrophysical Workflow for Quantitative Seismic Interpretation Studies 171 Synthetic Seismogram 173 Reasons Why We Do Synthetic Seismogram 173 Well-to-Seismic Tie 177 Objectives of Well-to-Seismic Tie 177 Uncertainties in Well-to-Seismic Tie 178 Stretch/Squeeze to Improve Well Synthetics to Seismic Match 183 More Technical Analysis of Question 57 by Industry Experts 184 Knee Picking in Sonic Calibration 186 Depth-Depth Curve Synthetic Seismogram 187 Seismic Attributes From Synthetic Seismic Data 189 Wavelet Extraction/Derivation 191

Chapter 5 Zero-Phasing of Seismic Data 199 Phase of Seismic Data 202 How to Determine the Phase of Seismic Data 203 How to Determine the Phase of Thin Reservoir Bed 213

Chapter 6 AVO Analysis and Interpretation 217 Understanding AVO 217 AVO Attributes 221 How to Compute AVO Attributes (Intercept and Gradient) From Seismic Gather and the Data Needed 222 AVO Crossplot and Reflection Characteristics of Sand and Shale 227 Factors That Affect AVO Analysis 228 AVO Classification 229 Four Classes of Gas Sands 229 Anisotropy AVO Modeling and Prestack Gathers 236 Offset Balancing 258 Shallow Gas 263

Chapter 7 Gassmann's Fluid Substitution 265 Fluid Substitution 265 Fluid Substitution in Unconventional (Shale Oil/Gas) Reservoirs 273 Forward Stratigraphy Modeling 275 Porosity Concepts in Fluid Substitution 280

Chapter 8 Seismic Inversion 283 Data Needed to do Seismic Inversion 283 Low-Frequency Model Use for Seismic Inversion 285 How to Determine the Low Frequency Model 286 How to Estimate S-Impedance from P-Wave Data 290 Simultaneous Elastic Inversion and Extended Elastic Inversion 291 Performing Seismic Inversion on High-Resolution 2D Seismic Data 297 Difference Between AVO Analysis and Seismic Inversion 300 Colored Seismic Inversion 300 Advantages of Colored Inversion Over Trace Integration Method 301 Reduce Uncertainties in Reservoir Predictions Using Sequence Stratigraphy and Seismic Inversion 302


Chapter 9 Pore Pressure and Pore Pressure Gradient 307 Major Cause of Overpressure 311 Relationship Between Shale Anistropy and Pore Pressure 325 Fracture Pressure and Fracture Gradient 327 Minimum Stress for Lower Bound of Fracture Gradient 327 Formation Breakdown Pressure for Upper Bound of Fracture Gradient 328 Pore Pressure in a Hydraulically Connected Formation 329 Some Methods of Pore Pressure Prediction 332 Pore Pressure Prediction From Resistivity 332 Pore Pressure Prediction From Interval Velocity and Transit Time (Sonic Log) 335 Pore Pressure Prediction Using Seismic Data and Well Data 360 Pore Pressure Prediction in Deviated Well 365 Overpressure and Wellbore Instability 367 RT Pore Pressure Analysis 369 Density Extrapolation in Pore Pressure Prediction 372 Compaction Trend 374 Eaton's Resistivity Method With Depth-Dependent Normal Compaction Trendline 375 Case Application 377 Eaton's Velocity Method With Depth-Dependent Normal Compaction Trendline 378 Normal Compaction Trend in Carbonate Reservoir 392 New Theoretical Models of Pore Pressure Prediction 395 Pore Pressure Prediction From Porosity 395 Pore Pressure Prediction From Transit Time or Velocity 397 Case Applications-Gulf of Mexico 398 Pore Pressure From Porosity Model 398 Pore Pressure From Sonic Transit Time Model 399 Pore Pressure From Sonic Transit Time Model in Subsalt Formations 400 Pore Pressure Prediction in Carbonate Reservoir 403 Pore Pressure Prediction in an Unconventional Reservoir-Case Study Bossier and Haynesville Shales 408 Geology and Lithology in the Bossier and Haynesville Shales 409 Rock Properties Associated With Pore Pressure Prediction 410 Formation Temperature 410 Porosity and Depth Relationship 410 Gas Effect on Compressional Velocity 411 Overburden Stress Gradient 414 Fluid Kicks and Influx While Drilling in the Studied Area 414 Pore Pressure Prediction From Kicks 415 Pore Pressure Prediction From Well-Log Data 416 Pore Pressure From Sonic Velocity 417 Pore Pressure From Formation Porosity 418 Pore Pressure and Formation Unloading 419 Conclusions on the Bossier and Haynesville Shale Formation 421

Appendix A 423 Appendix B 425 References 427 Index 433
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About Enwenode Onajite

Enwenode Onajite, author of 'Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration'. Formerly a research reservoir geophysicist with Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria limited (SPDC). He is now an independent research reservoir geophysicist and is available for opportunities in the oil and gas industry. He is an Associate member of the Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) and member of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG).
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