A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux

A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux

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The Most Complete, Easy-to-Follow Guide to Ubuntu Linux





The #1 Ubuntu server resource, fully updated for Ubuntu 10.4 (Lucid Lynx)-the Long Term Support (LTS) release many companies will rely on for years!
Updated JumpStarts help you set up Samba, Apache, Mail, FTP, NIS, OpenSSH, DNS, and other complex servers in minutes
Hundreds of up-to-date examples, plus comprehensive indexes that deliver instant access to answers you can trust

Mark Sobell's A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux (R), Third Edition, is the most thorough and up-to-date reference to installing, configuring, and working with Ubuntu, and also offers comprehensive coverage of servers-critical for anybody interested in unleashing the full power of Ubuntu.



This edition has been fully updated for Ubuntu 10.04 (Lucid Lynx), a milestone Long Term Support (LTS) release, which Canonical will support on desktops until 2013 and on servers until 2015.





Sobell walks you through every essential feature and technique, from installing Ubuntu to working with GNOME, Samba, exim4, Apache, DNS, NIS, LDAP, gufw, firestarter, iptables, even Perl scripting. His exceptionally clear explanations demystify everything from networking to security.



You'll find full chapters on running Ubuntu from the command line and desktop (GUI), administrating systems, setting up networks and Internet servers, and much more. Fully updated JumpStart sections help you get complex servers running-often in as little as five minutes.



Sobell draws on his immense Linux knowledge to explain both the "hows" and the "whys" of Ubuntu. He's taught hundreds of thousands of readers and never forgets what it's like to be new to Linux. Whether you're a user, administrator, or programmer, you'll find everything you need here-now, and for many years to come.





The world's most practical Ubuntu Linux book is now even more useful!



This book delivers



Hundreds of easy-to-use Ubuntu examples
Important networking coverage, including DNS, NFS, and Cacti
Coverage of crucial Ubuntu topics such as sudo and the Upstart init daemon
More detailed, usable coverage of Internet server configuration, including Apache (Web) and exim4 (email) servers
State-of-the-art security techniques, including up-to-date firewall setup techniques using gufw and iptables, and a full chapter on OpenSSH
A complete introduction to Perl scripting for automated administration
Deeper coverage of essential admin tasks-from managing users to CUPS printing, configuring LANs to building a kernel
Complete instructions on keeping Ubuntu systems up-to-date using aptitude, Synaptic, and the Software Sources window
And much more...including a 500+ term glossary

Includes DVD! Get the full version of Lucid Lynx, the latest Ubuntu LTS release!
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Product details

  • Mixed media product | 1320 pages
  • 189 x 229 x 43mm | 1,760g
  • Prentice Hall
  • Upper Saddle River, United States
  • English
  • 3rd edition
  • 013254248X
  • 9780132542487
  • 577,776

Back cover copy

The Most Complete, Easy-to-Follow Guide to Ubuntu Linux The #1 Ubuntu server resource, fully updated for Ubuntu 10.4 (Lucid Lynx)-the Long Term Support (LTS) release many companies will rely on for years! Updated JumpStarts help you set up Samba, Apache, Mail, FTP, NIS, OpenSSH, DNS, and other complex servers in minutes Hundreds of up-to-date examples, plus comprehensive indexes that deliver instant access to answers you can trust Mark Sobell's "A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux(R), Third Edition, " is the most thorough and up-to-date reference to installing, configuring, and working with Ubuntu, and also offers comprehensive coverage of servers-critical for anybody interested in unleashing the full power of Ubuntu. This edition has been fully updated for Ubuntu 10.04 (Lucid Lynx), a milestone Long Term Support (LTS) release, which Canonical will support on desktops until 2013 and on servers until 2015. Sobell walks you through every essential feature and technique, from installing Ubuntu to working with GNOME, Samba, exim4, Apache, DNS, NIS, LDAP, gufw, firestarter, iptables, even Perl scripting. His exceptionally clear explanations demystify everything from networking to security. You'll find full chapters on running Ubuntu from the command line and desktop (GUI), administrating systems, setting up networks and Internet servers, and much more. Fully updated JumpStart sections help you get complex servers running-often in as little as five minutes. Sobell draws on his immense Linux knowledge to explain both the "hows" and the "whys" of Ubuntu. He's taught hundreds of thousands of readers and never forgets what it's like to be new to Linux. Whether you're a user, administrator, or programmer, you'll find everything you need here-now, and for many years to come. " The world's most practical Ubuntu Linux book is now even more useful! " This book delivers Hundreds of easy-to-use Ubuntu examples Important networking coverage, including DNS, NFS, and Cacti Coverage of crucial Ubuntu topics such as sudo and the Upstart init daemon More detailed, usable coverage of Internet server configuration, including Apache (Web) and exim4 (email) servers State-of-the-art security techniques, including up-to-date firewall setup techniques using gufw and iptables, and a full chapter on OpenSSH A complete introduction to Perl scripting for automated administration Deeper coverage of essential admin tasks-from managing users to CUPS printing, configuring LANs to building a kernel Complete instructions on keeping Ubuntu systems up-to-date using aptitude, Synaptic, and the Software Sources window And much more...including a 500+ term glossary Includes DVD! Get the full version of Lucid Lynx, the latest Ubuntu LTS release!
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Table of contents

List of JumpStarts xxxvii

Preface xxxix



Chapter 1: Welcome to Linux 1

Ubuntu Linux 2

The History of UNIX and GNU-Linux 3

What Is So Good About Linux? 6

Overview of Linux 12

Additional Features of Linux 17

Conventions Used in This Book 19

Chapter Summary 21

Exercises 22



Part I: Installing Ubuntu Linux 23



Chapter 2: Installation Overview 25

The Live/Install Desktop CD and the Live/Install DVD 26

More Information 26

Planning the Installation 27

The Installation Process 42

Downloading and Burning a CD/DVD 43

Gathering Information About the System 47

Chapter Summary 49

Exercises 49

Advanced Exercises 49



Chapter 3: Step-by-Step Installation 51

Booting from a Live/Install Desktop CD or a Live/Install DVD 52

Graphical Partition Editors 63

Upgrading to a New Release 74

Installing KDE 75

Setting Up a Dual-Boot System 76

Advanced Installation 77

Chapter Summary 93

Exercises 94

Advanced Exercises 94



Part II: Getting Started with Ubuntu Linux 95



Chapter 4: Introduction to Ubuntu Linux 97

Curbing Your Power: root Privileges/sudo 98

A Tour of the Ubuntu Desktop 99

Getting Help 116

Updating, Installing, and Removing Software Packages 131

Where to Find Documentation 136

More About Logging In 144

Working from the Command Line 150

Controlling Windows: Advanced Operations 153

Chapter Summary 156

Exercises 157

Advanced Exercises 158



Chapter 5: The Linux Utilities 159



Special Characters 160

Basic Utilities 161

Working with Files 163

| (Pipe): Communicates Between Processes 170

Four More Utilities 171

Compressing and Archiving Files 174

Locating Commands 178

Obtaining User and System Information 180

Communicating with Other Users 184

Email 185

Tutorial: Using vim to Create and Edit a File 186

Chapter Summary 193

Exercises 196

Advanced Exercises 197



Chapter 6: The Linux Filesystem 199

The Hierarchical Filesystem 200

Directory Files and Ordinary Files 200

Pathnames 205

Working with Directories 207

Access Permissions 215

ACLs: Access Control Lists 221

Links 226

Chapter Summary 232

Exercises 234

Advanced Exercises 236



Chapter 7: The Shell 237

The Command Line 238

Standard Input and Standard Output 243

Running a Command in the Background 254

Filename Generation/Pathname Expansion 256

Builtins 261

Chapter Summary 261

Exercises 262

Advanced Exercises 264



Part III: Digging into Ubuntu Linux 265



Chapter 8: Linux GUIs: X and GNOME 267

X Window System 268

The Nautilus File Browser Window 276

The Nautilus Spatial View 282

GNOME Utilities 284

Chapter Summary 288

Exercises 289

Advanced Exercises 289



Chapter 9: The Bourne Again Shell 291

Background 292

Shell Basics 293

Parameters and Variables 312

Special Characters 326

Processes 328

History 330

Aliases 346

Functions 349

Controlling bash: Features and Options 352

Processing the Command Line 356

Chapter Summary 365

Exercises 367

Advanced Exercises 369



Chapter 10: Networking and the Internet 371

Types of Networks and How They Work 373

Communicate over a Network 388

Network Utilities 390

Distributed Computing 397

Usenet 407

WWW: World Wide Web 409

Chapter Summary 411

Exercises 412

Advanced Exercises 413



Part IV: System Administration 415



Chapter 11: System Administration: Core Concepts 417

Running Commands with root Privileges 419

The Upstart Event-Based init Daemon 432

System Operation 443

Avoiding a Trojan Horse 453

Getting Help 454

Textual System Administration Utilities 455

Setting Up a Server 460

nsswitch.conf: Which Service to Look at First 475

PAM 478

Chapter Summary 483

Exercises 484

Advanced Exercises 484



Chapter 12: Files, Directories, and Filesystems 487

Important Files and Directories 488

File Types 500

Filesystems 505

Chapter Summary 514

Exercises 515

Advanced Exercises 515



Chapter 13: Downloading and Installing Software 517

JumpStart: Installing and Removing Packages Using aptitude 519

Finding the Package That Holds a File You Need 521

APT: Keeps the System Up-to-Date 522

dpkg: The Debian Package Management System 532

BitTorrent 539

Installing Non-dpkg Software 541

wget: Downloads Files Noninteractively 543

Chapter Summary 544

Exercises 545

Advanced Exercises 545



Chapter 14: Printing with CUPS 547

Introduction 548

JumpStart I: Configuring a Local Printer 549

system-config-printer: Configuring a Printer 550

JumpStart II: Setting Up a Local or Remote Printer Using the CUPS Web

Interface 555

Traditional UNIX Printing 558

Configuring Printers 560

Printing from Windows 566

Printing to Windows 568

Chapter Summary 568

Exercises 569

Advanced Exercises 569



Chapter 15: Building a Linux Kernel 571

Prerequisites 572

Downloading the Kernel Source Code 573

Read the Documentation 575

Configuring and Compiling the Linux Kernel 575

Installing the Kernel, Modules, and Associated Files 582

Rebooting 583

GRUB: The Linux Boot Loader 583

dmesg: Displays Kernel Messages 589

Chapter Summary 590

Exercises 590

Advanced Exercises 591



Chapter 16: Administration Tasks 593

Configuring User and Group Accounts 594

Backing Up Files 599

Scheduling Tasks 605

System Reports 608

parted: Reports on and Partitions a Hard Disk 611

Keeping Users Informed 614

Creating Problems 615

Solving Problems 616

MySQL 628

Chapter Summary 635

Exercises 636

Advanced Exercises 636


Chapter 17: Configuring and Monitoring a LAN 637

Setting Up the Hardware 638

Configuring the Systems 641

NetworkManager: Configures Network Connections 642

Setting Up Servers 646

Introduction to Cacti 647

More Information 658

Chapter Summary 659

Exercises 660

Advanced Exercises 660



Part V: Using Clients and Setting Up Servers 661



Chapter 18: OpenSSH: Secure Network Communication 663

Introduction to OpenSSH 664

Running the ssh, scp, and sftp OpenSSH Clients 667

Setting Up an OpenSSH Server (sshd) 676

Troubleshooting 680

Tunneling/Port Forwarding 681

Chapter Summary 684

Exercises 684

Advanced Exercises 685



Chapter 19: FTP: Transferring Files Across a Network 687

Introduction to FTP 688

Running the ftp and sftp FTP Clients 690

Setting Up an FTP Server (vsftpd) 699

Chapter Summary 711

Exercises 712

Advanced Exercises 712



Chapter 20: exim4: Setting Up Mail Servers, Clients, and More 713

Introduction to exim4 714

Setting Up a Mail Server (exim4) 715

Working with exim4 Messages 720

Configuring an exim4 Mail Server 724

SpamAssassin 727

Additional Email Tools 731

Authenticated Relaying 736

Chapter Summary 738

Exercises 738

Advanced Exercises 739



Chapter 21: NIS and LDAP 741

Introduction to NIS 742

Running an NIS Client 744

Setting Up an NIS Server 750

LDAP 758

Setting Up an LDAP Server 760

Other Tools for Working with LDAP 767

Chapter Summary 770

Exercises 771

Advanced Exercises 771



Chapter 22: NFS: Sharing Filesystems 773

Introduction to NFS 774

Running an NFS Client 776

Setting Up an NFS Server 782

automount: Mounts Directory Hierarchies on Demand 792

Chapter Summary 795

Exercises 795

Advanced Exercises 795



Chapter 23: Samba: Linux and Windows File and Printer Sharing 797

Introduction to Samba 798

Setting Up a Samba Server 800

Working with Linux Shares from Windows 814

Working with Windows Shares from Linux 815

Troubleshooting 817

Chapter Summary 819

Exercises 820

Advanced Exercises 820



Chapter 24: DNS/BIND: Tracking Domain Names and Addresses 821

Introduction to DNS 822

Setting Up a DNS Server 834

Setting Up Different Types of DNS Servers 850

Chapter Summary 860

Exercises 860

Advanced Exercises 861



Chapter 25: firestarter, gufw, and iptables: Setting Up a Firewall 863

Introduction to firestarter 864

firestarter: Setting Up and Maintaining a Firewall 866

ufw: The Uncomplicated Firewall 874

gufw: The Graphical Interface to ufw 876

Introduction to iptables 880

Building a Set of Rules Using iptables 885

Copying Rules to and from the Kernel 891

Sharing an Internet Connection Using NAT 892

Chapter Summary 896

Exercises 897

Advanced Exercises 897



Chapter 26: Apache: Setting Up a Web Server 899

Introduction 900

Running a Web Server (Apache) 902

Configuration Directives 909

Configuration Files 932

Advanced Configuration 935

Troubleshooting 940

Modules 941

webalizer: Analyzes Web Traffic 948

MRTG: Monitors Traffic Loads 948

Error Codes 948

Chapter Summary 949

Exercises 950

Advanced Exercises 950



Part VI: Programming Tools 951



Chapter 27: Programming the Bourne Again Shell 953

Control Structures 954

File Descriptors 987

Parameters and Variables 990

Builtin Commands 1002

Expressions 1016

Shell Programs 1024

Chapter Summary 1034

Exercises 1036

Advanced Exercises 1038



Chapter 28: The Perl Scripting Language 1041

Introduction to Perl 1042

Variables 1049

Control Structures 1057

Working with Files 1066

Sort 1069

Subroutines 1071

Regular Expressions 1073

CPAN Modules 1079

Examples 1081

Chapter Summary 1085

Exercises 1085

Advanced Exercises 1086



Part VII: Appendixes 1087



Appendix A: Regular Expressions 1089

Characters 1090

Delimiters 1090

Simple Strings 1090

Special Characters 1090

Rules 1093

Bracketing Expressions 1094

The Replacement String 1094

Extended Regular Expressions 1095

Appendix Summary 1097



Appendix B: Help 1099

Solving a Problem 1100

Finding Linux-Related Information 1101

Specifying a Terminal 1106



Appendix C: Security 1109

Encryption 1110

File Security 1115

Email Security 1115

Network Security 1116

Host Security 1119

Security Resources 1124

Appendix Summary 1127



Appendix D: The Free Software Definition 1129



Glossary 1133

JumpStart Index 1183

File Tree Index 1185

Utility Index 1189

Main Index 1195
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Review quote

Praise for Previous Editions of A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux (R)



"I am so impressed by how Mark Sobell can approach a complex topic in such an understandable manner. His command examples are especially useful in providing a novice (or even an advanced) administrator with a cookbook on how to accomplish real-world tasks on Linux. He is truly an inspired technical writer!"

-George Vish II, Senior Education Consultant, Hewlett-Packard Company



"Overall, I think it's a great, comprehensive Ubuntu book that'll be a valuable resource for people of all technical levels."

-John Dong, Ubuntu Forum Council Member, Backports Team Leader



"The JumpStart sections really offer a quick way to get things up and running, allowing you to dig into the details of the book later."

-Scott Mann, Aztek Networks





"This entire book is a real boon to any neophyte who does not have a solid handle on getting their own answers. That group is the one that I think will benefit the most from A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux (R). Random access is easy, but reading cover to cover would also give one a nice foundational understanding of getting the most out of their machine and even enough guidance to get their feet wet in the sysadmin world. Anyone thrown into owning an Ubuntu server may find this to be a handy lifeline."

-JR Peck, Editor, GeekBook.org



"Very well thought out and simplified. [I] would buy another book from this author (Mark Sobell)."

-Greg Dye, Electronic Tech



"Ubuntu is gaining popularity at the rate alcohol did during Prohibition, and it's great to see a well-known author write a book on the latest and greatest version. Not only does it contain Ubuntu-specific information, but it also touches on general computer-related topics, which will help the average computer user to better understand what's going on in the background. Great work, Mark!"

-Daniel R. Arfsten, Pro/ENGINEER Drafter/Designer



"I would so love to be able to use this book to teach a class about not just Ubuntu or Linux but about computers in general. It is thorough and well written with good illustrations that explain important concepts for computer usage."

-Nathan Eckenrode, New York Local Community Team



"I read a lot of Linux technical information every day, but I'm rarely impressed by tech books. I usually prefer online information sources instead. Mark Sobell's books are a notable exception. They're clearly written, technically accurate, comprehensive, and actually enjoyable to read."

-Matthew Miller, Senior Systems Analyst/Administrator, BU Linux Project, Boston University Office of Information Technology



"Overall, A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux (R) by Mark G. Sobell provides all of the information a beginner to intermediate user of Linux would need to be productive. The inclusion of the Live DVD of the Gutsy Gibbon release of Ubuntu makes it easy for the user to test-drive Linux without affecting his installed OS. I have no doubts that you will consider this book money well spent."

-Ray Lodato, Slashdot contributor, www.slashdot.org



"This is well-written, clear, comprehensive information for the Linux user of any type, whether trying Ubuntu on for the first time and wanting to know a little about it, or using the book as a very good reference when doing something more complicated like setting up a server. This book's value goes well beyond its purchase price and it'll make a great addition to the Linux section of your bookshelf."

-Linc Fessenden, Host of The LinuxLink TechShow, tllts.org



"The author has done a very good job at clarifying such a detail-oriented operating system. I have extensive UNIX and Windows experience and this text does an excellent job at bridging the gaps between Linux, Windows, and UNIX. I highly recommend this book to both `newbs' and experienced users. Great job!"

-Mark Polczynski, Information Technology Consultant



"When I first started working with Linux just a short 10 years or so ago, it was a little more difficult than now to get going. . . . Now, someone new to the community has a vast array of resources available on the web, or if they are inclined to begin with Ubuntu, they can literally find almost every single thing they will need in the single volume of Mark Sobell's A Practical Guide to Ubuntu Linux (R).



"I'm sure this sounds a bit like hyperbole. Everything a person would need to know? Obviously not everything, but this book, weighing in at just under 1200 pages, covers so much so thoroughly that there won't be much left out. From install to admin, networking, security, shell scripting, package management, and a host of other topics, it is all there. GUI and command line tools are covered. There is not really any wasted space or fluff, just a huge amount of information. There are screen shots when appropriate but they do not take up an inordinate amount of space. This book is information-dense."

-JR Peck, Editor, GeekBook.org



"Mark G. Sobell's freshly revised reference work on Ubuntu Linux may be the most impressive computer book I've seen in the last 10 years. If you are currently stranded with a pile of abandoned computers on a desert isle, I'm telling you, this is the book."

-From a review at DesktopLinux.com, http://www.desktoplinux.com/news/NS8801274918.html



Praise for Other Books by Mark G. Sobell



"I currently own one of your books, A Practical Guide to Linux (R). I believe this book is one of the most comprehensive and, as the title says, practical guides to Linux I have ever read. I consider myself a novice and I come back to this book over and over again."

-Albert J. Nguyen



"Thank you for writing a book to help me get away from Windows XP and to never touch Windows Vista. The book is great; I am learning a lot of new concepts and commands. Linux is definitely getting easier to use."

-James Moritz



"I have been wanting to make the jump to Linux but did not have the guts to do so-until I saw your familiarly titled A Practical Guide to Red Hat (R) Linux (R) at the bookstore. I picked up a copy and am eagerly looking forward to regaining my freedom."

-Carmine Stoffo, Machine and Process Designer to pharmaceutical industry



"I am currently reading A Practical Guide to Red Hat (R) Linux (R) and am finally understanding the true power of the command line. I am new to Linux and your book is a treasure."

-Juan Gonzalez
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About Mark G. Sobell

Mark G. Sobell is President of Sobell Associates Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in UNIX/Linux training, support, and custom software development. He has more than twenty-five years of experience working with UNIX and Linux systems and is author of many best-selling books, including A Practical Guide to Red Hat (R) Linux (R), Fifth Edition; A Practical Guide to Linux (R) Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming, Second Edition; and A Practical Guide to Linux (R) for Mac OS (R) X Users (with Peter Seebach), all from Prentice Hall; and A Practical Guide to the UNIX System from Addison-Wesley.
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84 ratings
3.82 out of 5 stars
5 30% (25)
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3 24% (20)
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