CONTENTS OF VOLUME 1 APPLICATIONS LIST xiiPREFACE xivAVAILABLE SUPPLEMENTS AND MEDIA xxiiNOTES TO STUDENTS (AND INSTRUCTORS) ON THE FORMAT xxivCOLOR USE: VECTORS, FIELDS, AND SYMBOLS xxv CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION, MEASUREMENT, ESTIMATING1-1 The Nature of Science1-2 Models, Theories, and Laws1-3 Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures1-4 Units, Standards, and the SI System1-5 Converting Units1-6 Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating*1-7 Dimensions and Dimensional AnalysisSUMMARYQUESTIONSPROBLEMSGENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 2: DESCRIBING MOTION: KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION2-1 Reference Frames and Displacement2-2 Average Velocity2-3 Instantaneous Velocity2-4 Acceleration2-5 Motion at Constant Acceleration2-6 Solving Problems2-7 Freely Falling Objects*2-8 Variable Acceleration; Integral Calculus*2-9 Graphical Analysis and Numerical IntegrationSUMMARYQUESTIONSPROBLEMSGENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 3: KINEMATICS IN TWO OR THREE DIMENSIONS; VECTORS3-1 Vectors and Scalars3-2 Addition of Vectors-Graphical Methods3-3 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar 3-4 Adding Vectors by Components 3-5 Unit Vectors 3-6 Vector Kinematics 3-7 Projectile Motion 3-8 Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion 3-9 Relative Velocity SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 4: DYNAMICS: NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 4-1 Force 4-2 Newton's First Law of Motion 4-3 Mass 4-4 Newton's Second Law of Motion 4-5 Newton's Third Law of Motion 4-6 Weight-the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force 4-7 Solving Problems with Newton's Laws: Free-Body Diagrams 4-8 Problem Solving-A General Approach SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 5: USING NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION, CIRCULAR MOTION, DRAG FORCES 5-1 Applications of Newton's Laws Involving Friction 5-2 Uniform Circular Motion-Kinematics 5-3 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 5-4 Highway Curves: Banked and Unbanked *5-5 Nonuniform Circular Motion *5-6 Velocity-Dependent Forces: Drag and Terminal Velocity SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 6: GRAVITATION AND NEWTON'S6 SYNTHESIS 6-1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation 6-2 Vector Form of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation 6-3 Gravity Near the Earth's Surface; Geophysical Applications 6-4 Satellites and "Weightlessness" 6-5 Kepler's Laws and Newton's Synthesis *6-6 Gravitational Field 6-7 Types of Forces in Nature *6-8 Principle of Equivalence; Curvature of Space; Black Holes SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 7: WORK AND ENERGY 7-1 Work Done by a Constant Force 7-2 Scalar Product of Two Vectors 7-3 Work Done by a Varying Force 7-4 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 8: CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 8-1 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces8-2 Potential Energy 8-3 Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation 8-4 Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy 8-5 The Law of Conservation of Energy 8-6 Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems 8-7 Gravitational Potential Energy and Escape Velocity 8-8 Power *8-9 Potential Energy Diagrams; Stable and Unstable Equilibrium SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 9: LINEAR MOMENTUM 9-1 Momentum and Its Relation to Force 9-2 Conservation of Momentum 9-3 Collisions and Impulse 9-4 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions 9-5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 9-6 Inelastic Collisions 9-7 Collisions in Two or Three Dimensions 9-8 Center of Mass (CM) 9-9 Center of Mass and Translational Motion *9-10 Systems of Variable Mass; Rocket Propulsion SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 10: ROTATIONAL MOTION 10-1 Angular Quantities 10-2 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities 10-3 Constant Angular Acceleration 10-4 Torque 10-5 Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia 10-6 Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics 10-7 Determining Moments of Inertia 10-8 Rotational Kinetic Energy 10-9 Rotational Plus Translational Motion; Rolling *10-10 Why Does a Rolling Sphere Slow Down? SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 11: ANGULAR MOMENTUM; GENERAL ROTATION 11-1 Angular Momentum-Object Rotating About a Fixed Axis 11-2 Vector Cross Product; Torque as a Vector 11-3 Angular Momentum of a Particle 11-4 Angular Momentum and Torque for a System of Particles; General Motion 11-5 Angular Momentum and Torque for a Rigid Object 11-6 Conservation of Angular Momentum *11-7 The Spinning Top and Gyroscope *11-8 Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces *11-9 The Coriolis Effect SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 12: STATIC EQUILIBRIUM; ELASTICITY AND FRACTURE 12-1 The Conditions for Equilibrium 12-2 Solving Statics Problems 12-3 Stability and Balance 12-4 Elasticity; Stress and Strain 12-5 Fracture *12-6 Trusses and Bridges *12-7 Arches and Domes SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 13: FLUIDS 13-1 Phases of Matter 13-2 Density and Specific Gravity 13-3 Pressure in Fluids 13-4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure 13-5 Pascal's Principle 13-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes' Principle 13-8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity 13-9 Bernoulli's Equation 13-10 Applications of Bernoulli's Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs, TIA *13-11 Viscosity *13-12 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille's Equation, Blood Flow *13-13 Surface Tension and Capillarity *13-14 Pumps, and the Heart SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 14: OSCILLATIONS 14-1 Oscillations of a Spring 14-2 Simple Harmonic Motion 14-3 Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 14-4 Simple Harmonic Motion Related to Uniform Circular Motion 14-5 The Simple Pendulum *14-6 The Physical Pendulum and the Torsion Pendulum 14-7 Damped Harmonic Motion 14-8 Forced Oscillations; Resonance SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 15: WAVE MOTION15-1 Characteristics of Wave Motion 15-2 Types of Waves: Transverse and Longitudinal 15-3 Energy Transported by Waves 15-4 Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave *15-5 The Wave Equation 15-6 The Principle of Superposition 15-7 Reflection and Transmission 15-8 Interference 15-9 Standing Waves; Resonance *15-10 Refraction *15-11 Diffraction SUMMARY QUESTIONSPROBLEMSGENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 16: SOUND 16-1 Characteristics of Sound 16-2 Mathematical Representation of Longitudinal Waves 16-3 Intensity of Sound: Decibels 16-4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns *16-5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition 16-6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats 16-7 Doppler Effect *16-8 Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom *16-9 Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 17: TEMPERATURE, THERMAL EXPANSION, AND THE IDEAL GAS LAW 17-1 Atomic Theory of Matter 17-2 Temperature and Thermometers 17-3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 17-4 Thermal Expansion *17-5 Thermal Stresses 17-6 The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature 17-7 The Ideal Gas Law 17-8 Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law 17-9 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro's Number *17-10 Ideal Gas Temperature Scale-a Standard SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 18: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 18-1 The Ideal Gas Law and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature 18-2 Distribution of Molecular Speeds 18-3 Real Gases and Changes of Phase 18-4 Vapor Pressure and Humidity *18-5 Van der Waals Equation of State *18-6 Mean Free Path *18-7 Diffusion SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 19: HEAT AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 19-1 Heat as Energy Transfer 19-2 Internal Energy 19-3 Specific Heat 19-4 Calorimetry-Solving Problems 19-5 Latent Heat 19-6 The First Law of Thermodynamics 19-7 Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics; Calculating the Work 19-8 Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy 19-9 Adiabatic Expansion of a Gas 19-10 Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 20: SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 20-1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics-Introduction 20-2 Heat Engines 20-3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes; the Carnot Engine 20-4 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 20-5 Entropy 20-6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 20-7 Order to Disorder 20-8 Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death *20-9 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law *20-10 Thermodynamic Temperature Scale; Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics *20-11 Thermal Pollution, Global Warming, and Energy Resources SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 21: ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD 21-1 Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation 21-2 Electric Charge in the Atom 21-3 Insulators and Conductors 21-4 Induced Charge; the Electroscope 21-5 Coulomb's Law 21-6 The Electric Field 21-7 Electric Field Calculations for Continuous Charge Distributions 21-8 Field Lines 21-9 Electric Fields and Conductors 21-10 Motion of a Charged Particle in an Electric Field 21-11 Electric Dipoles *21-12 Electric Forces in Molecular Biology; DNA *21-13 Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 22: GAUSS'S LAW 22-1 Electric Flux 22-2 Gauss's Law 22-3 Applications of Gauss's Law *22-4 Experimental Basis of Gauss's and Coulomb's Law SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 23: ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 23-1 Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference 23-2 Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field 23-3 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges 23-4 Potential Due to Any Charge Distribution 23-5 Equipotential Surfaces 23-6 Electric Dipole Potential 23-7 E Determined from V 23-8 Electrostatic Potential Energy; the Electron Volt 23-9 Cathode Ray Tube: TV and Computer Monitors, Oscilloscope SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 24: CAPACITANCE, DIELECTRICS, ELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE 24-1 Capacitors 24-2 Determination of Capacitance 24-3 Capacitors in Series and Parallel 24-4 Electric Energy Storage 24-5 Dielectrics *24-6 Molecular Description of Dielectrics SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 25: ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND RESISTANCE 25-1 The Electric Battery 25-2 Electric Current 25-3 Ohm's Law: Resistance and Resistors 25-4 Resistivity 25-5 Electric Power 25-6 Power in Household Circuits 25-7 Alternating Current 25-8 Microscopic View of Electric Current: Current Density and Drift Velocity *25-9 Superconductivity *25-10 Electrical Conduction in the Nervous System SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 26: DC CIRCUITS26-1 EMF and Terminal Voltage26-2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel26-3 Kirchoff's Rules26-4 EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery26-5 Circuits Containing Resistor and Capacitor (RC Circuits)26-6 Electric Hazards*26-7 Ammeters and VoltmetersSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 27: MAGNETISM27-1 Magnets and Magnetic Fields27-2 Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields27-3 Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of 27-4 Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field27-5 Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Dipole Moment*27-6 Applications: Galvanometers, Motors, Loudspeakers27-7 Discover and Properties of the Electron*27-8 The Hall Effect*27-9 Mass SpectrometerSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 28: SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD28-1 Magnetic Field Due to a Straight Wire28-2 Force between Two Parallel Wires28-3 Definitions of the Ampere and the Coulomb28-4 Ampere's Law28-5 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid and a Toroid28-6 Biot-Savart Law*28-7 Magnetic materials-Ferromagnetism*28-8 Electromagnets and Solenoids-Applications*28-9 Magnetic Fields in Magnetic Materials; Hysteresis*28-10 Paramagnetism and DiamagnetismSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 29: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND FARADAY'S LAW29-1 Induced EMF29-2 Faraday's Law of Induction; Lenz's Law29-3 EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor29-4 Electric Generators*29-5 Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents29-6 Transformers and Transmission of Power29-7 A Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field*29-8 Applications of Induction: Sound Systems, Computer Memory, Seismograph, GFCISUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 30: INDUCTANCE, ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCILLATIONS, AND AC CIRCUITS30-1 Mutual Inductance30-2 Self-Inductance30-3 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field30-4 LR Circuits 30-5 LC Circuits and Electromagnetic Oscillations30-6 LC Oscillations with Resistance (LRC Circuit)30-7 AC Circuits with AC Source30-8 LRC Series AC Circuit30-9 Resonance in AC Circuits*30-10 Impedance MatchingSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 31: MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES31-1 Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Ampere's Law and Displacement Current31-2 Gauss's Law for Magnetism31-3 Maxwell's Equations31-4 Production of Electromagnetic Waves*31-5 Electromagnetic Waves, and Their Speed, from Maxwell's Equations31-6 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum31-7 Measuring the Speed of Light31-8 Energy in EM Waves; the Poynting Vector*31-9 Radiation Pressure*31-10 Radio and Television; Wireless CommunicationSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 32: LIGHT: REFLECTION AND REFRACTION32-1 The Ray Model of Light32-2 The Speed of Light and Index of Refraction32-3 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror32-4 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors32-5 Refraction: Snell's Law32-6 Visible Spectrum and Dispersion32-7 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics*32-8 Refraction at a Spherical SurfaceSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 33: LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS33-1 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing33-2 The Thin Lens Equation; Magnification33-3 Combinations of Lenses33-4 Lensmaker's Equation33-5 Cameras, Film and Digital33-6 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses33-7 Magnifying Glass33-8 Telescopes*33-9 Compound Microscope*33-10 Aberrations of Lenses and MirrorsSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 34: THE WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT; INTERFERENCE34-1 Waves Versus Particles; Huygens' Principle and Diffraction34-2 Huygens' Principle and the Law of Refraction34-3 Interference-Young's Double-Slit Experiment34-4 Intensity in the Double-Slit Interference Pattern34-5 Interference in Thin Films*34-6 Michelson Interferometer*34-7 Luminous IntensitySUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 35: DIFFRACTION AND POLARIZATION35-1 Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk35-2 Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern35-3 Diffraction in the Double-Slit Experiment 35-4 Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures35-5 Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the Î» Limit*35-6 Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification35-7 Diffraction Grating*35-8 The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy*35-9 Peak Widths and Resolving Power for a Diffraction Grating*35-10 X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction35-11 Polarization*35-12 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)*35-13 Scattering of Light by the AtmosphereSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 36: SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY36-1 Galilean-Newtonian Relativity*36-2 The Michelson-Morley Experiment36-3 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity36-4 Simultaneity36-5 Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox36-6 Length Contraction36-7 Four-Dimensional Space-Time36-8 Galilean and Lorentz Transformations36-9 Relativistic Momentum and Mass36-10 The Ultimate Speed36-11 Energy and Mass; E=mc236-12 Doppler Shift for Light36-13 The Impact of Special RelativitySUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 37: EARLY QUANTUM THEORY AND MODELS OF THE ATOM37-1 Planck's Quantum Hypothesis37-2 Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect37-3 Photons and the Compton Effect37-4 Photon Interactions; Pair Production37-5 Wave-Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity37-6 Wave Nature of Matter*37-7 Electron Microscopes37-8 Early Models of the Atom37-9 Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom37-10 The Bohr Model37-11 DeBroglie's Hypothesis Applied to AtomsSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 38: QUANTUM MECHANICS38-1 Quantum Mechanics-A New Theory38-2 The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment38-3 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle38-4 Philosophic Implications; Probability Versus Determinism38-5 The Schrodinger Equation in One Dimension-Time-Independent Form*38-6 Time-Dependent Schrodinger Equation38-7 Free Particles; Plane Waves and Wave Packets38-8 Particle in an Infinitely Deep Square Well Potential (a Rigid Box)*38-9 Finite Potential Well38-10 Tunneling through a BarrierSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 39: QUANTUM MECHANICS OF ATOMS39-1 Quantum-Mechanical View of Atoms39-2 Hydrogen Atom: Schrodinger Equation and Quantum Numbers39-3 Hydrogen Atom Wave Functions39-4 Complex Atoms; the Exclusion Principle39-5 The Periodic Table of Elements39-6 X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number*39-7 Magnetic Dipole Moments; Total Angular Momentum*39-8 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence*39-9 Lasers*39-10 HolographySUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 40: MOLECULES AND SOLIDS40-1 Bonding in Molecules40-2 Potential-Energy Diagrams for Molecules40-3 Weak (van der Waals) Bonds40-4 Molecular Spectra40-5 Bonding in Solids40-6 Free-Electron Theory of Metals40-7 Band Theory of Solids 40-8 Semiconductors and Doping*40-9 Semiconductor Diodes*40-10 Transistors and Integrated CircuitsSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 41: NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIOACTIVITY41-1 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus41-2 Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces41-3 Radioactivity41-4 Alpha Decay41-5 Beta Decay41-6 Gamma Decay41-7 Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws41-8 Half-Life and Rate of Decay41-9 Decay Series41-10 Radioactive Dating41-11 Detection of RadiationSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 42: NUCLEAR ENERGY: EFECTS AND USES OF RADIATION42-1 Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutations of Elements42-2 Cross Section42-3 Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors42-4 Fusion42-5 Passage of radiation through matter; Radiation Damage42-6 Measurement of Radiation-Dosimetry*42-7 Radiation Therapy*42-8 Tracers*42-9 Imaging by Tomography: CAT Scans, and Emission Tomography*42-10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)SUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS CHAPTER 43: ELEMENTARY PARTICLES43-1 High-Energy Particles43-2 Particle Accelerators and Detectors43-3 Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics-Particle Exchange43-4 Particles and Antiparticles43-5 Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws43-6 Particle Classification43-7 Particle Stability and Resonances43-8 Strange Particles43-9 Quarks43-10 The "Standard Model": Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the Electroweak Theory43-11 Grand Unified TheoriesSUMMARY QUESTIONS PROBLEMS GENERAL PROBLEMS

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