Physics of Fast Processes in Scintillators
10%
off

Physics of Fast Processes in Scintillators

By (author)  , By (author)  , By (author) 

Free delivery worldwide

Available soon, pre-order now.
When will my order arrive?

Description

This book presents the current advances in understanding of the fast excitation transfer processes in inorganic scintillation materials, the discovery of new materials exhibiting excellent time resolution, and the results on the evaluation of timing limits for scintillation detectors. The book considers in-depth basic principles of primary processes in energy relaxation, which play a key role in creating scintillating centers to meet a growing demand for knowledge to develop new materials combining high energy and time resolutions. The rate of relaxation varies. However, the goal is to make it extremely fast, occurring within the ps domain or even shorter. The book focuses on fast processes in scintillation materials. This approach enables in-depth understanding of fundamental processes in scintillation and supports the efforts to push the time resolution of scintillation detectors towards 10 ps target. Sophisticated theoretical and advanced experimental research conducted in the last decade is reviewed. Engineering and control of the energy transfer processes in the scintillation materials are addressed. The new era in development of instrumentation for detection of ionizing radiation in high- energy physics experiments, medical imaging and industrial applications is introduced.



This book reviews modern trends in the description of the scintillation build up processes in inorganic materials, transient phenomena, and engineering of the scintillation properties. It also provides reliable background of scientific and educational information to stimulate new ideas for readers to implement in their research and engineering.



The book is aimed at providing a coherent updated background of scientific and instructive information to stimulate new ideas for readers in their research and engineering.
show more

Product details

  • Hardback
  • 155 x 235mm
  • Cham, Switzerland
  • English
  • 1st ed. 2020
  • 30 Illustrations, color; 50 Illustrations, black and white; Approx. 300 p. 80 illus., 30 illus. in color.
  • 3030219658
  • 9783030219659

Back cover copy

This book presents the current advances in understanding of the fast excitation transfer processes in inorganic scintillation materials, the discovery of new materials exhibiting excellent time resolution, and the results on the evaluation of timing limits for scintillation detectors. The book considers in-depth basic principles of primary processes in energy relaxation, which play a key role in creating scintillating centers to meet a growing demand for knowledge to develop new materials combining high energy and time resolutions. The rate of relaxation varies. However, the goal is to make it extremely fast, occurring within the ps domain or even shorter. The book focuses on fast processes in scintillation materials. This approach enables in-depth understanding of fundamental processes in scintillation and supports the efforts to push the time resolution of scintillation detectors towards 10 ps target. Sophisticated theoretical and advanced experimental research conducted in the last decade is reviewed. Engineering and control of the energy transfer processes in the scintillation materials are addressed. The new era in development of instrumentation for detection of ionizing radiation in high- energy physics experiments, medical imaging and industrial applications is introduced.

This book reviews modern trends in the description of the scintillation build up processes in inorganic materials, transient phenomena, and engineering of the scintillation properties. It also provides reliable background of scientific and educational information to stimulate new ideas for readers to implement in their research and engineering.

The book is aimed at providing a coherent updated background of scientific and instructive information to stimulate new ideas for readers in their research and engineering.
show more

Table of contents

Introduction



1. Scintillation-based measurements of ionizing radiation



1.1 Energy measurements



1.1.1 Low-energy charged particles and gamma-quanta



1.1.2 High-energy charged particles



1.1.3 Neutral particles



1.2 Identification of events



1.2.1 Low energy gamma-quanta



1.2.2 Calorimetry in high energy physics



1.3 Demand for fast timing measurements



2. Timing measurements with light pulses



2.1 Scintillation pulse



2.1.1 Energy deposit



2.1.2 Forming of the scintillation pulse due to light collection in scintillatior element



2.2 Time resolution of two optical pulses with an ideal photo-sensor



2.2.1 Time resolution of optical pulses passing through non-refractive media



2.2.2 Time resolution of optical pulses passing through refractive media







3. Development of scintillation pulse



3.1 Stages of energy transformation in scintillators



3.2 Time evolution of hot carriers



3.3 Time structure of ionization track



3.3.1 Compounds with spatially homogeneous band gap



3.3.2 Mixed crystals



3.4 Thermalization of free carriers



3.5 Formation of emission centers



3.5.1 Formation of radiative recombination centers



3.5.1.1 Self-activated materials



3.5.1.2 Ce-doped materials



3.5.1.3 Role of shallow traps



3.6 Cross-luminescence



3.7 Nonlinear effects in interaction of carriers and formation of emission centers



3.7.1 Non-proportionality of fast processes



3.7.2 Formation of complex emission centers (biexcitons and transient radiation induced emission centers)



3.8 Fast emission in wide-band-gap semiconductors (ZnO, diamond, etc.)



3.9 Effects in spatially confinement systems (nano-scale scintillators)



3.10 Fast processes in scintillation ceramics



4. Shallow traps in scintillation materials



4.1 Traps in Ce-doped materials



4.2 Intrinsic shallow traps in mixed crystals doped with Ce



4.3 Traps in self-activated materials



5. Free carrier dynamics in scintillation materials



5.1 Experimental technique



5.2 Self-activated materials: PWO4, Bi4Ge3O12



5.3 Ce-doped binary materials: LSO, YAP, YAG



5.4 Ce-doped mixed crystals: LYSO, GAGG, GYAGG, LYAP



5.5 Synthetic diamonds



6. Transient phenomena in scintillators



6.1 Intraband transitions



6.2 Conduction band



6.3 Valence band; the case of GAGG



6.4 Cerenkov radiation



7. Transient phenomena in diamond



7.1 HPHT diamond



7.2 CVD diamond



8. Coincidence time resolution with scintillators



8.1 CTR with Ce doped materials



CTR with self-activated materials
show more

About Mikhail Korzhik

Mikhail Korzhik (Korjik) graduated in physics from the Belarus State University in 1981. He got his PhD degree in 1991 and his Doctoral Diploma in Nuclear Physics and Optics in 2005. Since the beginning of the nineties, he was deeply involved in the research and development of inorganic scintillation materials. He was instrumental in the development of the technology of a few oxide scintillation materials, pioneered the Pr3+-doped scintillation materials. His study promoted the understanding of scintillation mechanisms in many crystals. He took part in the discovery and development of mass production technology of lead tungstate PbWO4 scintillation crystal for high energy physics applications including exploitation of this crystal in two ambitious LHC experiments, CMS and ALICE, first of which made an important contribution to the discovery of the Higgs boson. He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee of SCINT and a chairman of ISMART biannual international conferences dedicated to the development of scintillation materials.



Gintautas Tamulaitis graduated in physics in 1979, received his PhD degree in 1985 and habilitated doctor degree in 2001 from Vilnius University. He received two Lithuanian National Science Awards (in 2002 and 2008). He is a professor at Vilnius University. He also did research as a visiting researcher at the University of California, Berkeley, the University of South Carolina, and the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. His main research background is in the experimental study of nonequilibrium quasiparticles in semiconductors and their low-dimensional structures by using time-resolved and spatially-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and techniques based on nonlinear optics. Currently, his research is focused on the study of fast nonlinear optical processes to be exploited in future radiation detectors with timing of the order of 10 ps and search for novel single crystal materials and glass ceramics prospective as fast scintillators.

Andrei Vasil'ev graduated from the Faculty of Physics at Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1975 and got his PhD degree in 1978 in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics. In 1995, he received his Doctoral Diploma in Optics. He is a department head at Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University. His main activities were focused on the investigation of luminescence of inorganic insulators excited by VUV and X-ray synchrotron radiation and by ionizing particles. His in-depth study of all stages of energy relaxation in scintillators contributed to contemporary understanding of non-proportionality, formation of light yield, response kinetics and energy resolution of scintillators. He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Conference SCINT.
show more