Physical Geography

Physical Geography : The Global Environment

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Description

This is an introdutory physical geography text designed for 1st or 2nd year undergraduate students of Geography, Geology and Environmental Sciences. A four colour text with a massive visual program that includes nearly 300 colour photgraphs, 300 line drawings and numerous maps and tables.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 620 pages
  • 215.9 x 274.32 x 35.56mm | 1,973.12g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 3rd Revised edition
  • full colour throughout
  • 0195160223
  • 9780195160222

Table of contents

Preface; PART 1. A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE; UNIT 1. GEOGRAPHY; 1.1. Physical Geography; 1.2. A Century of Physical Geography; 1.3. Systems and Models in Physical Geography; 1.4. Geographic Magnitude; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: SLIDING SCALE; UNIT 2. THE PLANET EARTH; 2.1. Spheres of the Earth System; 2.2. Hemispheres; 2.3. Continents and Oceans; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: HUMAN POPULATION AND NATURAL PROCESSES; UNIT 3. MAPPING THE EARTH'S SURFACE; 3.1. The Spherical Earth; 3.2. Map Projections; 3.3. Map Interpretation; 3.4. Evolving Cartographic Technology; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: REMOTE SENSING OF THE ENVIRONMENT; UNIT 4. THE EARTH IN THE UNIVERSE; 4.1. The Universe; 4.2. The Solar System; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: COLLISION!; UNIT 5. EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIPS; 5.1. Earth's Planetary Motions; 5.2. Seasonality; 5.3. Insolation and Its Variation; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: MEASURING TIME ON OUR ROTATING EARTH; PART 2. ATMOSPHERE AND HYDROSPHERE; UNIT 6. COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE; 6.1. Contents of the Atmosphere; 6.2. The Layered Structure of the Atmosphere; 6.3. Research Frontiers; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: OZONE HOLES IN THE STRATOSPHERE; UNIT 7. RADIATION AND THE HEAT BALANCE OF THE ATMOSPHERE; 7.1. The Radiation Balance; 7.2. The Heat Balance; 7.3. Global Distribution of Heat Flows; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND GLOBAL WARMING; UNIT 8. ATMOSPHERIC AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE; 8.1. What is Temperature?; 8.2. The Vertical Distribution of Temperature; 8.3. The Horizontal Distribution of Temperature; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: URBAN DUST DOMES AND HEATING PATTERNS; UNIT 9. AIR PRESSURE AND WINDS; 9.1. Atmospheric Pressure; 9.2. Air Movement in the Atmosphere; 9.3. Large-and Smaller-Scale Wind Systems; 9.4. Local Wind Systems; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: AIR PRESSURE AND WIND IN OUR DAILY LIVES; UNIT 10. CIRCULATION PATTERNS OF THE ATMOSPHERE; 10.1. A Model of the Surface Circulation; 10.2. The Actual Surface Circulation Pattern; 10.3. Secondary Surface Circulation: Monsoonal Windflows; 10.4. Circulation of the Upper Atmosphere; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE SAILOR'S LEGACY-NAMING THE WINDS; UNIT 11. HYDROSPHERE: CIRCULATION OF THE WORLD OCEAN; 11.1. Surface Currents; 11.2. Generation of Ocean Currents; 11.3. Flow Behavior of Ocean Currents; 11.4. Deep-Sea Currents; 11.5. The Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System; 11.6. El Nino-Southern Oscillation; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE NORTH ATLANTIC OSCILLATION; UNIT 12. ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE AND THE WATER BALANCE; 12.1. Physical Properties of Water; 12.2. Measuring Water Vapor; 12.3. The Hydrologic Cycle; 12.4. Evaporation; 12.5. Condensation and Clouds; 12.6. Precipitation; 12.7. The Surface Water Balance; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: WATER USAGE IN THE UNITED STATES; UNIT 13. PRECIPITATION, AIR MASSES, AND FRONTS; 13.1. Precipitation-Producing Processes; 13.2. Convergent-Lifting Precipitation; 13.3. Convectional Precipitation; 13.4. Orographic Precipitation; 13.5. Frontal (Cyclonic) Precipitation; 13.6. Air Masses in the Atmosphere; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: TORNADOES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES; UNIT 14. WEATHER SYSTEMS; 14.1. Low-Latitude Weather Systems; 14.2. Weather Systems of the Middle and Higher Latitudes; 14.3. Energy and Moisture Within Weather Systems; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: HONDURAS AFTER HURRICANE MITCH; UNIT 15. WEATHER TRACKING AND FORECASTING; 15.1. Weather Data Acquisition; 15.2. Mapping Weather Data; 15.3. Weather Forecasting; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: CLIMATE IN DAILY HUMAN TERMS; UNIT 16. CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION AND REGIONALIZATION; 16.1. Classifying Climates; 16.2. The Koppen Climate Classification System; 16.3. The Regional Distribution of Climate Types; 16.4. Boundaries of Climate Regions; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: DEFORESTATION OF THE TROPICS; UNIT 17. TROPICAL (A) AND ARID (B) CLIMATES; 17.1. The Major Tropical (A) Climates; 17.2. The Major Arid (B) Climates; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: DESERTIFICATION; UNIT 18. HUMID MESOTHERMAL (C) CLIMATES; 18.1. The Perpetually Moist (Cf) Climates; 18.2. The Dry-Summer (Cs) Climates; 18.3. The Dry-Winter (Cw) Climates; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE DROUGHT OF '88; UNIT 19. HIGHER LATITUDE (D, E) AND HIGH-ALTITUDE (H) CLIMATES; 19.1. The Major Humid Microthermal (D) Climates; 19.2. The Polar (E) Climates; 19.3. High-Altitude (H) Climates; Perspectives on the Human Environment: Acid Precipitation; UNIT 20. DYNAMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE; 20.1. Evidence of Climate Change; 20.2. The Climatic History of the Earth; 20.3. Mechanisms of Climate Change; 20.4. The Climatic Future; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: WEATHER EXTREMES AND TELECONNECTIONS; UNIT 21. HUMAN-CLIMATE INTERACTIONS AND IMPACTS; 21.1. The Heat Balance of the Human Body; 21.2. Shelter, Houses, and Climate; 21.3. Urban Microclimates; 21.4. Air Pollution; 21.5. Human Activities and the Global Climate Machine; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: WEATHER MODIFICATION IN AN INDUSTRIAL REGION; PART 3. THE BIOSPHERE; UNIT 22. CLIMATE, SOIL, PLANTS, AND ANIMALS; 22.1. Natural Geography; 22.2. Conservation and the Biosphere; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: BIODIVERSITY UNDER SIEGE; UNIT 23. FORMATION OF SOILS; 23.1. The Formation of Soil; 23.2. Processes in the Soil; 23.3. Soil Profiles; 23.4. Soil Regimes; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: EXCHANGE OF IONS; UNIT 24. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL; 24.2. Soil Texture; 24.3. Soil Structure; 24.4. Soil Color; 24.5. Soil Acidity and Alkalinity; 24.6. Soils of Hills and Valleys; 24.7. The Soil Development System; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: FERTILIZER; UNIT 25. CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SOILS; 25.1. Classifying Soils; 25.2. The Soil Taxonomy; 25.3. The Spatial Distribution of Soils; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: SOIL TAXONOMY-WHAT'S IN A NAME?; UNIT 26. BIOGEOGRAPHIC PROCESSES; 26.1. Dynamics of the Biosphere; 26.2. Plant Successions; 26.3. Geographic Dispersal; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: A BIOGEOGRAPHIC PUZZLE: THE SPECIES-RICHNESS GRADIENT; UNIT 27. THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS; 27.1. Biomes; 27.2. Principal Terrestrial Biomes; Perspectives on the Human Environment: North America's Vegetation Regions; UNIT 28. ZOOGEOGRAPHY: SPATIAL ASPECTS OF ANIMAL POPULATIONS; 28.1. Processes of Evolution; 28.2. Emergence of Zoogeography; 28.3. The Earth's Zoogeographic Realms; 28.4. Further Studies in Zoogeography; 28.5. Zoogeography and Conservation; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE AFRICAN STOWAWAYS; PART 4. THE RESTLESS CRUST; UNIT 29. PLANET EARTH IN PROFILE: THE LAYERED INTERIOR; 29.1. Evidence of the Earth's Internal Structuring; 29.2. The Earth's Internal Layer; 29.3. The Earth's Outer Layer; 29.4. The Crustal Surface; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: HILLS, MOUNTAINS, PLAINS, PLATEAUS--WHAT'S IN A NAME?; UNIT 30. MINERALS AND IGNEOUS ROCKS; 30.1. Minerals and Rocks; 30.2. Classification of Rock Types; 30.3. Igneous Rocks; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE WORLD'S OLDEST ROCKS; UNIT 31. SEDIMENTARY AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS; 31.1. Sedimentary Rocks; 31.2. Metamorphic Rocks; 31.3. The Rock Cycle; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: OILFIELD FORMATION; UNIT 32. PLATES OF THE LITHOSPHERE; 32.1. Continental Drift; 32.2. Continents and Seafloors; 32.3. Distribution of Plates; 32.4. Movement of Plates; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: FAULTING IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN: THE 1994 NORTHRIDGE EARTHQUAKE; UNIT 33. PLATE MOVEMENT: CAUSES AND EFFECTS; 33.1. Mechanism of Crustal Spreading; 33.2. Evolution of Continents; 33.3. Isostasy; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: HOW FAST DO DRIFTING PLATES MOVE?; UNIT 34. VOLCANISM AND ITS LANDFORMS; 34.1. Distribution of Volcanic Activity; 34.2. Volcanic Mountains; 34.3. Calderas; 34.4. Landscapes of Volcanism; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: RISKING THE WRATH OF GODDESS PELE; UNIT 35. EARTHQUAKES AND LANDSCAPES; 35.1. Earthquake Terminology; 35.2. Earthquake Distribution; 35.3. Earthquakes and Landscapes; 35.4. Tsunamis; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: EARTHQUAKE RISK IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES; UNIT 36. SURFACE EXPRESSIONS OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES; 36.1. Terminology of Structure; 36.2. Fault Structures; 36.3. Fold Structures; 36.4. Regional Deformation; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE DECLINE AND FALL OF SOUTHEAST TEXAS; PART 5. SCULPTING THE SURFACE; UNIT 37. THE FORMATION OF LANDSCAPES AND LANDFORMS; 37.1. Landscapes and Landforms; 37.2. Gradation; 37.3. Erosion and Tectonics; 37.4. Regional Landscapes; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: USING THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE; UNIT 38. WEATHERING PROCESSES; 38.1. Mechanical Weathering; 38.2. Chemical Weathering; 38.3. Biological Weathering; 38.4. Geography of Weathering; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE DUST BOWL; UNIT 39. MASS MOVEMENTS; 39.1. Mass Movement; 39.2. The Importance of Mass Movements; Perspectives on the Human Environment: The Human Factor; UNIT 40. WATER IN THE LITHOSPHERE; 40.1. Water at the Surface; 40.2. Water Flow in Rivers; 40.3. Water Beneath the Surface; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION; UNIT 41. SLOPES AND STREAMS; 41.1. Erosion and the Hydrologic Cycle; 41.2. Streams and Basins; 41.3. Stream Functions and Valley Properties; 41.4. Factors in Stream Erosion; 41.5. The River as a System; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE HAZARDS OF FLOODPLAIN SETTLEMENT; UNIT 42. DEGRADATIONAL LANDFORMS OF STREAM EROSION; 42.1. Factors Affecting Stream Degradation; 42.2. Drainage Patterns; 42.3. Overcoming Geologic Structure; 42.4. Regional Geomorphology; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: CONTROLLING ROME'S RIVER; UNIT 43. AGGRADATIONAL LANDFORMS OF STREAM EROSION; 43.1. Alluvial Fans; 43.2. Rivers to the Sea; 43.3. Deltas; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE GREAT MIDWESTERN FLOOD OF '93; UNIT 44. KARST PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS; 44.1. Karst; 44.2. Karst Processes; 44.3. Karst Landforms and Landscapes; 44.4. Karst and Caves; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: FLORIDA'S WINTER PARK SINKHOLE; UNIT 45. GLACIAL DEGRADATION AND AGGRADATION; 45.1. Glaciers of the Past; 45.2. The Formation of Glaciers; 45.3. The Glacier as a System; 45.4. Glacial Movement and Erosion; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: WHAT CAUSES ICE AGES?; UNIT 46. LANDFORMS AND LANDSCAPES OF CONTINENTAL GLACIERS; 46.1. The Antarctic Ice Sheet; 46.2. The Greenland Ice Sheet; 46.3. Age of the Present Ice Sheets; 46.4. Other Late Cenozoic Ice Sheets; 46.4.1. North America's Glaciation: The Final Four; 46.4.2.. Landscapes of Continental Glaciers; 46.4.3. Aggradational Landforms of Ice Sheets; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE DRIFTLESS AREA; UNIT 47. LANDFORMS AND LANDSCAPES OF MOUNTAIN GLACIERS; 47.1. Mountain Glaciers Today; 47.2. Degradational Landforms of Mountain Glaciers; 47.3. Aggradational Landforms of Mountain Glaciers; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: MOUNTAIN GLACIERS: THE VIEW FROM SPACE; UNIT 48. PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS AND LANDSCAPES; 48.1. Permafrost; 48.2. Geomorphic Processes in Periglacial Environments; 48.3. Landforms of Periglacial Regions; 48.4. Resource Development in Periglacial Environments; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: HUMANS AND THE PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENT; UNIT 49. WIND AS A GEOMORPHIC AGENT; 49.1. Wind Erosion; 49.2. Degradational Landforms; 49.3. Aggradational Landforms; 49.4. Sand Dunes; 49.5. Loess; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: THE WINDS OF INTERSTATE-10; UNIT 50. COASTAL PROCESSES; 50.1. Coasts and Shore; 50.2. Waves and Their Properties; 50.3. Waves Against the Shore; 50.4. Degradation and Aggradation by Waves; 50.5. Tides and Shore Zone Currents; 50.6. The Role of Storms; 50.7. Crustal Movement; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: TIDES AND THEIR BEHAVIOR; UNIT 51. COASTAL LANDFORMS AND LANDSCAPES; 51.1. Aggradational Landforms; 51.2. Degradational Landforms; 51.3. Coastal Landscapes; 51.4. Living Shorelines; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: HAZARDS OF BARRIER ISLAND DEVELOPMENT; UNIT 52. PHYSIOGRAPHIC REALMS AND REGIONS: THE SPATIAL VARIATION OF LANDSCAPES; 52.1. Defining Physiographic Realms and Regions; 52.2. Physiographic Realms and Regions of North America; 52.3. The Physiographic Imprint; PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT: CUMBERLAND GAP; Appendix A: SI Units and Their Conversions; Appendix B: World Political Map, 2003; Pronunciation Guide; Glossary of Terms; Credits; Indexshow more

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